On day two of the 2010 GeoDesign Summit, Ron Stoltz from the University of Arizona and Karen Hanna from California State Polytechnic University, Pomona discuss ideas and methods for conceptualizing and implementing GeoDesign in the university curriculum.
00:01 Well a couple years ago at the University of Arizona, Jack Dangermond received an honorary doctorate...
00:10 ...for his transformational work in GIS and landscape planning.
00:16 And I'm not a...I'm not a landscape planner.
00:18 I'm actually don't know very much about GIS at all and...but during that visit, we were walking...
00:26 ...there's lots of receptions and, you know, ways of honoring this distinguished person.
00:32 We were quite literally walking through the desert on our way to some picnic ground for a...a...a reception in the...in the national park.
00:43 And Jack was describing GeoDesign to me.
00:47 And, of course, I, as opposed to some of the other notable people here...
00:51 ...who were in on the ground floor of this who understood what he was talking about, I didn't really.
00:56 I said, well, it sounds very...that sounds really interesting and it's something...
00:59 ...but it stuck with me over the course of the years that have...that have passed.
01:05 This past year, the...the graduate program in planning returned to the College of Architecture and Landscape Architecture...
01:15 ...and it's a long, sordid story about them...they were there and then they left and for some reason they came back...
01:22 ...and, I don't...you know, we don't...still don't know why they left in the first place, but they...in the down...
01:27 ...after 9/11, the university thought they should be doing something.
01:29 So something was to move these people around and, you know, and you...you...you...sh...we st...I mean, we still don't know.
01:36 It was the...you know, some academic forensics on that would be very interesting to know what happened.
01:41 Well, this presents an interesting opportunity because on the way back, well, after they...as they left...
01:47 ...they were exactly the same size as the School of Landscape Architecture.
01:50 When they came back, they were less than half the size, both in faculty and in student numbers.
01:58 And, in fact, they have...they were down below accreditation standards and so part of the negotiation of our new dean, Jan Cervelli...
02:06 ...was to bring them back and sort of restaff this planning program.
02:12 So it seemed to me that we have an opportunity to do something rather unique to bring them back into a design college.
02:21 They were mostly policy planners.
02:22 They were...they are policy planners.
02:25 And so this gives us a tremendous opportunity.
02:29 Well the s...the second thing I'd like to start with is, and in my career, I've spent most of my scholarly time working on the way people learn.
02:40 I'm interested in learning theory.
02:41 I'm particularly interested in the way professional programs are designed...
02:46 ...and that led me early on in my career to working with the learning center, and every university has one...
02:52 ...and we happen to have a very good one at the University of Guelph in Canada where I spent 27 years.
02:59 And one of the things that happened was is that as you go along, people say, it's quite a bit like what...what Carl was saying...
03:05 ...and people say, do...do this.
03:07 You know, get a new curriculum.
03:09 How many people have se...heard that?
03:10 You know, we're going to redesign the curriculum.
03:13 Well, where...where's the information on how you actually design it?
03:17 Where's the information on what you actually do?
03:19 What do you first and what do you do second and how does that work?
03:24 And so, I started looking at that and looked at it in the core structures.
03:28 I started looking at it holistically, and we turned it into a design problem.
03:34 So what I'd like to do in the first half of this, and go through it fairly quickly, and it's going to have to go by pretty fast...
03:41 ...is I'm going to show ways in which, if GeoDesign is a profession or a discipline, and no, Mike, not necessarily a department...
03:54 ...or is it different than landscape planning as we know it?
03:59 We can...we can really...I'd really like to talk about it.
04:01 Because it's going to be one thing...and dealing with the planners one thing I found out is someone said, kind of disparagingly...
04:08 ...about...about all that and some other colleagues that were planners, oh these...oh that person's a modeler.
04:14 And I didn't...I still don't know if that's a compliment or a, you know, if it was an insult.
04:19 So I thought, well gee, I think I'm kind of a modeler.
04:21 You know, I'm kind of doing some of this.
04:22 So let me see...let me...let me show you some things.
04:25 Okay. So get right to it.
04:27 If GeoDesign is...is a profession or a discipline, [inaudible] early on said in...in an article back in the 1970s said...
04:37 ...and one of the definitions of a profession is that it should be able to be taught.
04:41 And if it should be...if it can be taught, it should be taught then in a coordinated, coherent manner in a curriculum.
04:48 So a professional curriculum is really divided...any curriculum, for that matter...is divided into components.
04:52 And the curriculum designers will...will...will...will cite this.
04:56 This is the formal curriculum which most of us are aware of.
04:59 That's the coordinated set of courses or learning experience or modules and that.
05:03 And the other part as Bloom talks about is the cocurriculum, or he...he calls it the latent curriculum, the sort of hidden curriculum.
05:11 And those are the things that happen outside.
05:14 And immediately we run into what is the difference between a residential student experience...
05:21 ...learning experience or what happens online for...in distance.
05:26 And I don't have a...we can talk about that one for a long time.
05:29 But the cocurriculum is made up of all of those other experiences.
05:32 It could be study abroad, and you can see them listed there.
05:35 It goes down to mentorship, alumni interactions...all those things that happen outside of the formal core structure.
05:45 Well, I'm going to present to you then two ways of going about this.
05:48 There's the fast way and then there's the comprehensive way, or you might call it the slow way.
05:53 And the slow way really does present an opportunity for faculty, student, staff, practitioners to get involved.
06:00 Because it's a long conversation, and I won't...I won't kid you.
06:04 Okay, the first thing that you can do is you can take a series of learning objectives.
06:10 And this is just a partial list.
06:12 And you can say, here are the years of the curriculum and we can then down here at the bo...on the bottom left...
06:17 ...you can say, where is it that we're going to introduce, continue, emphasize, etc.
06:23 And we can go through all of the learning objectives for...they...for the curriculum, for the student time in place.
06:31 You can start to...you can start to say, well, some of them get a little i, and this is where you can kind of get a little discreet...
06:39 ...some of them get big Is.
06:41 That means we're just going to...just introduce it or here we're going to spend a great deal of effort, time, and course resources on that.
06:52 Down in the cocurriculum...down here, are things...that again they're outside the...the normal curriculum...
07:00 And there are things that happen as you move through the...move through the program.
07:04 And I just picked a bunch.
07:06 I...this...this list is probably about two and a half times this list.
07:10 But it's something that you can get through very quickly.
07:13 You can do this in the c...matter of a couple weeks if you get everybody talking about it.
07:21 Well what you do then is in phase 2 is you start to list out then by the courses.
07:26 The courses where you want these learning objectives to appear in the syllabi.
07:30 And so the syllabi then reflect that and you've put them all up on a wall and you look at them and you say...
07:35 ...does this all agree with that and to what level are we really talking about it?
07:41 And that works very, very quickly.
07:42 You can get, so if geodesign is a discipline or profession and we could...we could somehow agree what it is if it's, you know...
07:49 ...and some of the great discussions that we were having yesterday...
07:52 ...if we can agree, we can start to put it through...through this model.
07:58 Well, let's talk a little bit more about it being a little more complicated.
08:03 Each profession has its own set of curriculum domains or realms.
08:09 And this is something that we did when I was a visiting professor at San Luis Obispo.
08:15 They...we spent an awful lot of time just discussing not only what was in the accreditation standards...
08:22 ...but we went through and we tried to explain and...and devise much more richness to that.
08:28 And this the same thing their planning has those, architecture has them...all of the major accredited programs have these...
08:34 ...have these curriculum domains or...or realms.
08:37 Well, a model that you might start to look at is this is Kowitz and Smith's Students' Form of Development.
08:44 And when you look at this, you can say, well, that's pretty obvious.
08:47 You know, it's...a lot of these things are really...aren't very complicated.
08:50 But what it does is allows us to look at one of the things...a couple of the things a student moves...
08:56 ...moves along through learn...their learning experience.
08:59 The first level, the learner has little knowledge.
09:01 They're very instructor-dependent.
09:03 And they're requiring methods, relationships, the processes, they're memorizing all the plants.
09:10 All along when we talk about learning objectives, we should never forget that it's not about not memorizing things.
09:16 There are things in every profession that you have to memorize.
09:20 We all know what the third level looks like.
09:23 This is when the student...we have the student independent.
09:26 The student is out there leading in the field, particularly at the graduate level.
09:30 We hope that our students are becoming experts.
09:33 In fact, in many cases they will know more than we do about that particular area.
09:38 What's really hard, and this is where the controversy in instructional development...
09:42 ...because I spent years as the director of the teaching center.
09:46 I got into these long discussions about where do you put your so to speak best instructors?
09:52 Do they end up at the early level as...as many people would claim?
09:56 Or do they end up as these transitional coaches or...and...mentors in the second level?
10:08 Getting students, letting them go, giving them some freedom.
10:11 Eh, a little tether but not too much.
10:13 Going to hold them back just a little bit.
10:16 This is...this is something that we come back to a couple different times.
10:21 Well when you start looking at this in...as a diagram, you have years of the curriculum.
10:27 This is not the first year necessarily.
10:29 It's...it's just in zones.
10:32 Here's the...here are the various Kowitz and Smith levels as we go along.
10:37 The curriculum rounds as they move through years.
10:41 And one of the more important things is that in the model, you start to give the suggested ways in which it's taught.
10:48 I just c...because I serve on the chair of a...on the Landscape Architecture Accreditation Board visiting teams...
10:55 ...I go to a lot of universities, and you see very quickly if you're aware of this...
11:00 ...that very often we teach the first year of a program the same way we teach the fourth year of the program.
11:06 The...the instructor behaviors, the student responses end up being very similar.
11:10 Now we'd like to think that doesn't happen, but it really...it really does.
11:14 We also look at various ways in which assessment takes place, and this model then forms...
11:20 ...forms the basis of...of how we...we begin to plot out a strategy.
11:26 Well, the way in which that happens is is that there are, and traditionally, you've probably heard this...
11:32 ...there's knowledge, skills, and values.
11:35 Knowledge, skills, and values in landscape architecture I think got a little out of whack.
11:39 They ended up with...what was it, knowledge, skills, and attributes, or something like that.
11:44 Which doesn't...it makes it very difficult in that body of knowledge study to move it into a curriculum because it gets rather confusing.
11:51 Gronlund, based on the work of Bloom and Krathwohl and others, speaks to the cognitive, effective, and psychomotor domains.
12:02 There's a wonderful little book.
12:03 I give it to all of...anybody that comes near me.
12:06 It's in...I think this is the sixth edition.
12:08 I think it's in its ninth edition now.
12:10 And it really then...I know it sounds like, oh, God.
12:13 This sounds like, you know, this doesn't very...
12:14 Well, it's not very interesting.
12:17 It's not very interesting except for the fact that because you can get into, you know...
12:21 ...how do you parse down what is a goal and objectives and the mission and that sort of thing.
12:25 But, what happens is it has different components of Bloom's taxonomy.
12:38 And what we do is we have then at the beginning, we have knowledge which is the lower level...
12:43 ...which is why the way they don't use knowledge, skills, and values.
12:47 And they move upwards through this, in this case downward...
12:53 ...but it's to the upper levels then of where we would like to see our students in that zone 3.
12:58 We'd like to see them over on the synthesis and evaluation stage.
13:04 In the effective domain, here they come.
13:09 These are the values.
13:10 And what's important in the...it wasn't on the last slide for some reason, it dropped it off.
13:13 But if you can just sort of look over here.
13:15 What's really important is is that as you begin to work on...on the curriculum and look at the way in which the various syllabi are developed...
13:25 ...you start to use the verbs...whoops.
13:29 I see what you mean.
13:30 The...and you look at the instructional objectives from beginning at the...at the...at the beginning...
13:35 Let's say undervalues, listens attentively, and down here, displays, you know, safety consciousness, maintains good health habits...
13:44 Those kinds of values, and you can...we can translate...we've translated those many times into landscape architecture.
13:53 The next is psychomotor skills.
13:55 Skills are...are...are one that's...it's often misused term because we talk about teamwork skills and team-building skills...
14:01 ...and they're really not skills.
14:03 I mean, team...teamwork is really more of a cognitive and an effective.
14:07 It's really more about...it's about values and the valuing of the opinions of others and working with...with...with a degree of respect.
14:14 Skills very often it's...it's psychomotor is very often the manipulation of stuff and how well you can actually do those kinds of things.
14:25 And there you start off with perception in the lower level and work to the...to origination at the upper levels.
14:31 Again, you may want to just look at some of the...some of the verbs over here.
14:39 So what does it look like at the end?
14:41 Well, you take the domains.
14:45 You take the various areas and you start to...you start to...whoops, sorry.
14:54 You start to define by learning objective then what it is in that zone in the first zone in the...in the...
15:04 ...in the dependent learning zone what it is that you're talking about.
15:07 Appreciate the role and values and their effect on creative thinking.
15:12 Affective learn...sorry...affective level 3.
15:17 And if you go back to those charts, and I can't show you them all at the same time.
15:20 But you have to do it sort of with three things on the table.
15:24 And...and then, by connecting them, by showing the connections between one objective and another...
15:31 ...you make sure that they end up being in the same, so to speak, course or module or learning opportunity...
15:38 ...or whatever it is that you're talking about.
15:40 And this is what really you...you want to come out of it.
15:43 You want to come out of it because of the fact that we have more and more adjunct professors, people coming in teaching.
15:49 You want them to say, Okay, what are the expected learning outcomes from this course in the cognitive, effective, and psychomotor?
15:57 What are the course connections in other places?
15:59 What are the technical needs?
16:01 And what's the program description?
16:03 And I know I'm going to do this because it's going to be ab... kind of absurd.
16:06 But if you want to know what it looks like, I gave a copy to Jack one time.
16:14 This is kind of what it looks like at the end.
16:17 Alright. This is the way...with this, then looking at it.
16:22 There's our little chart up above that we looked at of the three...
16:25 ...and then we have the connections that are made between the various learning objectives in the various domains...
16:31 ...and at the end we can say, did we actually do that?
16:34 So the assessment technique then is not based on necessarily wholly on the student output.
16:39 The assessment technique...the techniques are really based on what it is that you went off to do in the first place.
16:44 So it gives us that opportunity.
16:46 Now, I'm going to turn the floor over to Karen who's going to talk a little bit about what we...
16:50 ...some of the things that we've been doing in relationship to GeoDesign.
16:58 Can you hear me? Okay.
17:02 Oops. Okay.
17:06 I'm going to go through a series of...first of all a set of drawings and digital images...
17:13 ...that I collected from my colleagues across the country, all at public universities.
17:21 And you will find that they are following a very similar process of a design process, somewhat different than Carl's.
17:30 And they're, you know, jumping in after the big question has been answered.
17:35 But I'm simply going to relate those examples to Bloom's ta...taxonomy...
17:41 ...and I'm going to move through this very quickly because I'm told I have two minutes or three?
17:46 So we are already doing quite a bit of this...of Bloom's taxonomy in our GIS classes.
17:54 Many people are teaching design class using GIS, and so the lower level of Bloom's taxonomy is mapmaking and site inventory.
18:04 And as you move to the upper-level skills, we have advanced input, collecting input on-site, interviewing people...
18:13 ...generating new maps from interviews, doing photo interpretation and analysis, and that's a very rich field...
18:22 ...site analysis, several different ways of putting together site analyses, either through suitability or just through graphic composites...
18:31 ...schematic plans and then stakeholder reviews.
18:35 And so this very simple little graph shows mapmaking is at the lower end and stack...stakeholder reviews is the evaluation...
18:46 ...and I won't go through all of those.
18:49 And then, here are some very pretty examples of...from the University of Arizona simple mapping.
18:57 Many of these are just downloaded.
19:00 Then there are derived maps which means that you have to use the GIS tools so that's an example of Bloom's application.
19:12 Analysis...when you...when we put them all together, this corresponds to Bloom's analysis.
19:19 Here's a different one where the student has applied some affective values and chosen the child's view of his neighborhood...
19:30 ...and selected those elements, those features that child...children are interesting...interested in.
19:38 And then there's...this is a series of three projects, very straightforward inventory maps, site analysis...
19:47 ...in this case suitability analysis leading to the diagrams over here, the design diagrams based on these analyses leading to a schematic plan.
20:02 Again, this is an example of Bloom's synthesis.
20:06 Another one.
20:08 A third one with the 3D view which we can now do digitally very effectively.
20:16 Here's an example, in China my colleague Janet Silbernagel worked with some Chinese colleagues...
20:23 ...right after the Sichuan earthquake to identify conservation areas, a couple of different strategies, and then a combination in strategy number 3.
20:34 My colleague Weimin Li at Cal Poly...this is this fall's Station Fire looking at not just the existing conditions and the 3D view but the...
20:48 ...moving into the analysis of defensible space and looking at different conditions along the urban interface, especially in debris basins.
21:01 But more importantly, what I want to talk about is the challenges that we face.
21:05 What are the things that we need to do in order to really move us into GeoDesign?
21:12 What...what are the things that we're on the cutting edge of that we need to continue to develop?
21:17 And among these are hand drawing.
21:20 I think we all agree that we want to be able to continue to hand draw.
21:24 We need to teach our students how to draw quickly, iteratively, so that they're using the right side of their brain...
21:32 ...and then bring those images into the 3D environment.
21:36 And we're already doing this.
21:39 We need to further explore these 3D tools, ArcSketch, Sketchup, and viewsheds.
21:45 We need to really embrace BIM and integrated practice.
21:51 Our colleagues in the area of engineering and architecture are very heavily involved in BIM.
21:58 Many of them are moving to integrated practice.
22:01 The whole design fields need to be aware of what integrated practice is.
22:07 It's not just the technology.
22:09 It's a matter of bringing everybody to the table at the same time and making sure that the scientists are involved, that the contractor's involved.
22:18 It's...it's a very different model of construction.
22:22 And then we need to develop better terrain tools.
22:26 I think everyone who has worked with terrain tools knows that there are limitations and are...
22:33 My good friend Chris Ellis is working on wetlands at University of Michigan...
22:38 ...tells me that he has to keep moving around to different tools, whereas Randy Gimlet, he uses a different tool for terrain modeling.
22:50 And so another set of challenges, integrating other technologies, integrated...
22:56 ...integration of analyses from the sciences into the design process, and greater integration of vetting tools.
23:07 So the question that we're all here to answer, I don't think anybody has the answer, is this a unique profession or is it a skill?
23:15 And so will we be training people or educating geodesigners to be designers who have all of these geospatial skills...
23:25 ...or will we have geodesigners who are simply trained as technologists...
23:31 ...and they'll act as the intermediaries between the designers and the other disciplines?
23:37 And that's a conversation that I've heard several times at this conference.
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