Naicong Li from the University of Redlands presents "Developing a Conceptual Framework for GeoDesign" at the 2011 GeoDesign Summit.
00:13 Hi. My topic today is developing a conceptual framework for geodesign.
00:20 So, I'm one of those people that Jack refers to yesterday as those who want to develop ontologies for geodesign.
00:28 And I always say, why in a little bit.
00:31 And I have to say that our work builds upon what we have done for spatial decision support.
00:39 We developed a conceptual framework for decision support and a knowledge portal for it.
00:44 And I think we all agree that design and decision making goes hand in hand tightly during all the stages of geodesign process.
00:56 And here, especially given this fairly broad definition of spatial decision support...
01:04 ...I think it works really well in the geodesign context, and this definition is crafted by Spatial Decision Support Consortium.
01:15 Here are the members.
01:16 In fact, many of them are sitting in this audience with us.
01:21 And the work that I'm going report on is the collaborative effort of this consortium.
01:30 So, first of all, we developed set of SDS ontologies and a knowledge portal on top of that.
01:38 And I hope you will see why this is relevant for geodesign.
01:42 So the objectives for developing the SDS knowledge portal is to systematically organize the vast body of knowledge...
01:51 ...and information in SDS, and you'll see what I mean by vast...
01:56 ...and facilitate the access of SDS resources which includes, for example, decision process workflow templates...
02:05 ...methods and techniques associated with specific steps during a process, and tools that implement a particular method.
02:15 Case studies that demonstrate the application of methods and tools and literature, of course, and so on and so forth.
02:24 So, besides facilitating access of SDS resources...
02:28 ...we also want to establish a standard terminology within the SDS community and promote semantic clarity.
02:37 We talked about, you know, the importance of clear communication just earlier on in earlier presentations.
02:45 And, therefore, help improve the quality of design and decision making.
02:51 So those are our objectives.
02:53 And the approach we took is to develop...use ontologies to organize everything.
03:01 So basically, ontologies act as the organization or glue for all this SDS-related concepts...
03:08 ...which are organized into hierarchies and graphs, however you want to call them...
03:14 ...and each concept is defined with the name, synonyms, and so on, and a description in natural language...
03:21 ...plus a set of formally defined attributes and a set of formally defined relations to other concepts...
03:29 ...and you will see what I mean by that in a little bit.
03:31 So, doing this, we will be able to help the user find the relevant information for their specific design and decision problems.
03:42 So, here is, okay, a little movie we made to show...oops...can we go back, okay, thank you.
03:58 Okay. So this is our knowledge portal.
04:08 Here we are just showing some, oh, I'm sorry, I think the button means different things on this machine.
04:18 Okay. Alright. Let's start again.
04:22 So entering decision support portal, first we will show you relevant fields of study where we have drawn our knowledge from.
04:32 You have seen some, you know, PPGIS, PGIS, and all those familiar terms.
04:36 We also have a small ontology for designing decision problem types.
04:40 Those are flashing by that this...problem types, network design and transportation routing design...
04:47 ...and location-allocation and so on and so forth.
04:51 And all decision problems exist in some kind of a decision context, institutional, legal, social, cultural, and so on and so forth.
05:01 And we also have decision process workflows.
05:05 We have collected several templates, NEPA planning process, for example, urban planning process, phases and steps...
05:13 ...and we have...each phase of decision process actually have substeps like stakeholder engagement...
05:21 ...and you can use different set, kind of a method during that step, and this is different phase, here's a design phase.
05:30 Concept design, for example, sketching, or you use automated optimization methods that generate solutions in some case...
05:39 ...and after you have all your design alternatives, you are in the choice phase where you do your impact analysis and there...
05:46 ...you use forecasting method to do that.
05:49 And also you rank your alternatives and there are methods to do that, for example, MCDA methods.
05:57 And there are tools implementing various methods, and here is one, EMDS, one of the tools...
06:04 ...and here are the set of formal parameters we use to define a particular tool.
06:10 And the tools are also related to...hooked up with case studies.
06:15 So this is a case study where this particular tool is used.
06:22 Sorry, this goes very fast here and...
06:26 And then methods, here is just that we have collected I think it's about a hundred decision support-related methods...
06:36 ...and then they are grouped in a sort of a taxonomy group decision, group consensus methods including Delphi process...
06:44 ...and so on and multicriteria decision analysis methods, and you don't really have to read it.
06:51 It's so hard. The words just flashing by real fast.
06:54 Here just to show the amount of information that's contained in this portal, especially in this method area.
07:03 And this is one of the MCDA methods there and uncertainty method is another group of methods that we collected.
07:14 And there is sensitivity analysis, different types.
07:19 And technology, of course, we'll see tools.
07:22 We have already seen one.
07:25 And then we have also information about data sources, web links where you can go...
07:30 ...where there are good collection of data sources and different models.
07:35 Carl talked about process models.
07:37 These are those.
07:39 And data models as well.
07:40 For example, this building data model that's on Esri website.
07:47 And we also have other, you know, concepts about people, participation, and so on.
07:56 And here's a whole list of tools.
07:58 We don't really have a whole bunch of tools, but each tool is coded in such way such that you can select, search for them...
08:08 ...using a set of criteria.
08:10 For example, for urban planning and you are looking for tools for ranking your alternatives, and here are the three tools that came back.
08:20 And similarly, data sources with case studies are organized that way.
08:26 And we have a large amount of reference, over 600 or so, literature pieces collected.
08:34 And there is your glossary as well.
08:38 Okay, so that's what's, very quickly, what's contained in our SDS ontology and knowledge portal.
08:48 And, so, several months ago we started to expand our ontology to cover the relevant concepts in geodesign.
08:58 In fact, a lot of them overlap.
09:01 A lot of you have seen applies in the geodesign context.
09:05 But we did add more design-focused concepts to it.
09:11 So here is, let's see, objectives are the same while we are doing this.
09:18 And also we want to serve different users of different application domains, people in planning...
09:26 ...urban planning versus people in natural resource management.
09:30 And we want...they speak different vocabulary sometimes and different ways of naming things, for example...
09:36 ...different focus on different concepts, and we want to accommodate that.
09:42 The content in the geodesign knowledge portal still is under development, but they include taxonomy of design problem types...
09:52 ...and geodesign process workflows and steps, strategies, methods, and so on.
09:58 Very similar to what we did for SDS.
10:01 In fact, we were able to use large, basically a huge percent, amount of what we have in SDS ontologies.
10:11 So, here is a very short movie. Okay, go back, please.
10:27 Could we play the movie, start here? Okay.
10:31 Well, sorry about that. Okay.
10:36 Oh, there you go.
10:37 Okay. So it has a different way of organizing things.
10:41 The portal is designed differently, but the concept is the same.
10:45 So here's Carl Steinitz's land change model.
10:49 The change model phase and which it corresponds to a design phase where you have different approaches for...
11:00 ...methods and approaches for doing a design that Carl just earlier mentioned.
11:05 And also, we talk about interactive concept design, creation, and refinement with on-the-fly constraint checking...
11:14 ...performance checking, impact analysis, and so on and so forth.
11:18 And here with this new portal design, we do have a graphical browsing capability.
11:24 So, from...you can browse to a different concept just by clicking on a different node.
11:32 And, again, there are other, you know, methods, tools, and models, data models, data sources, and case studies as well.
11:44 A lot of them are, in fact, the SDS case studies which apply equally well in the geodesign context.
11:52 The ontology, you can see them, expand them out, or not see them by clicking them back.
12:02 Okay, and the concepts glossary is still here.
12:07 We added a more, like I said earlier, design-focused concepts.
12:12 And if you think this is so very similar, in fact, you can switch views between the geodesign and SDS.
12:19 And if you are focused on one domain more than the other in your research area, so here is the SDS portal, the new face.
12:29 It is very similar setup, in fact, the same mechanism working...organization mechanism behind the scene here.
12:38 So, that's very quickly, basically it.
12:44 Just so you know, we don't just do semantic analysis or organization or informations.
12:50 We do do a lot of real-world projects like all of you at Redlands Institute.
12:56 At University of Redlands, we do works on endangered species, preservation, water resource management.
13:05 Now we're getting into land-use management, planning, and so on and so forth.
13:10 And we find that our work is informed by the knowledge and information collected in the portal...
13:17 ...and especially in designing our own planning process, what methods to choose, and so on, so we benefit from the portal.
13:28 So that's all. Thank you very much.
13:37 Excellent. Thank you very much.
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