ArcGIS Advances Spatial Analysis

Spatial analysis offers the capability to turn questions and data into knowledge. This video discusses how ArcGIS 10 advances spatial analysis with integrated scientific scripting, improved modeling, and more.

Sep 28th, 2010

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01:07So what we want to kick off the afternoon session about is looking at spatial analysis and how ArcGIS helps... with increasing your use of spatial analysis, because this is an important area...

01:22...because this is where it differentiates you, the GIS professional, because you have the ability to use these type of tools.

01:28Let's go ahead and do a review of spatial analysis and some of the new concepts that we have.

01:37With this slide, I always like to begin, How many geographers do we have in the audience?

01:43Wow, we've got a lot. That's good. That's more than Sacramento or San Francisco.

01:47Because I feel more at home with geographers. That's my background as well.

01:52But I think many of you begin to understand, nongeographers alike, that...

01:55...GIS has advanced the science of geography by allowing you to do different types of concepts...

02:04...doing measurements in quantifying and using models, and making your data actionable...

02:09...just making it more than just a point on a map...being able to solve complex problems with that.

02:15So many of you understand too, that over the last 20 years, there's more and more spatial tools...

02:21...spatial analysis tools are being made available through GIS.

02:28There's some common spatial analysis questions that drive any of the systems that you're using.

02:35Here are an example of a few.

02:38But as I look at it, I'd like to address more complex issues instead of a simple one-word statement or two-word statement.

02:47I'd like to be able to identify solutions for different types of problems.

02:53Good example for me would be...we're looking at smart growth.

02:58We're also looking at different types of how to plan housing, say you know, housing in relation to the work...

03:06...where the work areas are, and then being able to utilize the road infrastructure...

03:12...and also minimize greenhouse gas emissions by creating service areas that people don't have to go and drive.

03:22That's kind of a...could be a complex question to do, and this is where GIS shines.

03:26This is where you begin to take your data and make it actionable.

03:33We began or later in the morning, what we were doing was we introduced ArcGIS Server...

03:40...and I described that animation component with [ArcGIS] Server.

03:45Time. ArcGIS allows for temporal GIS. Making your maps time aware.

03:52Being able to look at an event as it occurred and seeing how it moved through an area...

03:59...and what were some of the factors that influenced that impact on that area?

04:07It's pretty valuable to be able to take that time component and bring it in with other spatial analysis tools.

04:14A good example that I look at is something in say, San Diego.

04:18You have an active fire history going on and over the last, well, it's been pretty heavy the last few years.

04:26But you want to maybe take a look at how the fire and the patterns moved through the area...

04:31...through Sacra...or, through San Diego, and be able to discern...

04:35...maybe something was increasing the dispersion of the fire, increasing it because of maybe...

04:42...that different types of vegetation conditions that were found, or different types of planning activities that...

04:49...the cities or counties needed to be able to understand.

04:52You could be able to see that and be able to discern that type of information by looking at it as a time-based scenario.

05:00Rather than me talking about it any further, we do have an excellent demonstration.

05:06This is, to me, this is the best demo of the whole event about time, and Jen will be doing that now.

05:14Thanks Tony. Put a lot of pressure on me I think...a little...

05:20Okay. So what we're looking at here is just a basemap showing the Washington, D.C., area.

05:25And what I want to do is just demonstrate and show you how we can use some of the new time features of ArcGIS 10... kind make sense of our crime data...

05:35...look at trends and patterns as happening within the D.C. area.

05:39So, first I’m going to begin by turning on our Crime Incidents, and there are a few.

05:44This always gets so much comment.

05:45But, the good news is...well, I don't know if there's good news, but anyway...

05:50...this is actually crime data that's been downloaded from the D.C. Data Catalog.

05:54So this is the crime in the D.C. area for the first six months of 2010.

05:59So it wasn't just a weekly thing or a daily crime thing.

06:03We've got six months' worth of crime data that we're showing here.

06:06But we can see right away that...we can't make a lot of sense of this data, right?

06:10We've got a whole lot of points that are being displayed on the map, but I can't really see any trends or anything...

06:15...except it just looks like a high volume of crime.

06:19So new in ArcGIS 10 is the ability to make your layers time aware.

06:24So this layer has been made time aware, so you can see we've enabled it on this...

06:28...and so now once I've done that, I have the ability, using the Time Slider bar... go through day by day and look at the various crimes that have happened on that specific day.

06:42So now we're able to kind of look through and see the differences and...

06:46...and see how the crime pattern has changed through each day, which is very powerful.

06:54I could also change this and create an animation and have that play so that we can watch and see how...

07:02...that time has changed, or sorry, the crime patterns have changed over time.

07:10Now I’m just going to take a few minutes to also show you some of the new geoprocessing capabilities...

07:15...and then also do some more analysis on the data.

07:18So I'm able to kind of get a visual pattern, and you know...

07:21...previously I'd have to break those up into queries, query out all those features by day.

07:25Now I can just use the Time Slider, play them, and create animations.

07:29So what I'm going to do is, I want to identify the density of crimes on a specific day of the week.

07:38So we have seven days out of the week.

07:41I want to see where there's high densities of crime incidents versus lower ones.

07:46And so rather than doing this analysis per each day, we've created a model to do this.

07:51But before I get into running this model to create those seven density grids for each day...

07:56...I just wanted to take a moment to show you a couple of new features of ModelBuilder.

07:59How many of you are ModelBuilder users out there?

08:02So you'd probably be really excited about a couple of these new features, and maybe you've already discovered them...

08:07...but new at 10, if you just hover over one of the elements inside your model... we go...I'm just not being patient pops up the information.

08:21So in this situation, we're looking at all the inputs that's going into that process as part of your model.

08:27So that's really nice, 'cause how many of you would do the right-click, open it up to look at your parameters for your tools...

08:32...and then you close it, and then you go "Oh, I forgot what I added."

08:35So that's a really nice feature.

08:36But this is probably my favorite.

08:38So how many of you have gone into ModelBuilder and you just deleted something, and you went "Uh-oh."

08:42And then you went and you clicked this X over here and you said "Don't save the changes."

08:47And then you opened it back up and it got back. Has anyone ever done that workflow?


08:53Well, this is a new feature at 10. We've added the Undo and Redo.

08:56So I think a lot of you will really appreciate having that feature in here.

09:01So what I'm going to do now is just run this model.

09:06And so it doesn't have any parameters.

09:08And another thing that is a new feature in 10 is background geoprocessing.

09:13And so Katja mentioned this a little bit in the imagery demo...

09:16...but you can see I can still work inside of ArcMap, so I can zoom in and out on my map.

09:22And take a minute for all those crime features to redraw.

09:27If I try to do something like close ArcMap, you can see that it gives me...'s letting me know that there's a process that's actually executing in the background, and if you look down at the bottom... can see's giving me some visual cue to let me know that that process is still working in the background.

09:47So that's really nice. So you can continue to be productive.

09:49A lot of us have pretty extensive geoprocessing operations that we execute... now we can continue to be productive and work on our desktop while that's happening in the background.

10:03So, another thing that I'll talk about just briefly before the results are returned... it's letting me know that the model has completed. Katja also mentioned the new mosaic dataset.

10:14So rather than going and turning on each one of those seven grids that are showing the density of crimes...

10:20...I'm going to use a mosaic dataset and the Time Slider to iterate through those seven different images.

10:27So if I come in, and I'm just going to turn it on, if I take a look here at the table inside the footprint... can notice that we've got seven different rasters that we're referencing.

10:38So each one of those rasters is a density map for crime on a specific day of the week.

10:45So I'm going to come back over and make sure that I have enabled this mosaic dataset as well, to be time aware...

10:54...and now I'm going to use the Time Slider just to iterate through those seven days of the week.

10:59Before I do that, I just want to modify a couple of the properties.

11:04For the first one, I'm just going to set it to my mosaic dataset instead of the crime data.

11:09And I just want to display it by day of the week.

11:17And now that I've gone and enabled that, you can see we can loop through, or we can, I'm sorry...

11:23...move through and look at each one of those density grids on the different days of the week.

11:28So that we can see where there's higher concentrations.

11:30The white areas are showing higher concentrations of crime and then the black areas are showing lower concentrations.

11:37So what I'd like to do now, is just even take this a step further.

11:40So now that we've kind of seen the different crime densities for days of the week...

11:45...I want to actually see the areas where crime is occurring on the weekends.

11:53So I actually want to see where areas have higher crime rates on the weekend versus the weekdays.

12:00And so this would help us to deploy the amount of resources that are necessary to police these areas.

12:08And so what we're looking at now is...

12:09...the yellow areas are showing where we have higher concentrations of crimes on weekends...

12:14...and the blue areas are showing the higher concentrations of crime on the weekend.

12:20Now, many of us, this is great, right?

12:22We do this analysis, we work with all these tools using ArcGIS Desktop...

12:27...but the next thing that I want to show you is taking this information and building it...

12:35...or providing it through a Web application so that others within the organization have access to this information.

12:42So now what I've opened up here is the new ArcGIS Viewer for Flex and so some of you...

12:48How many of you've downloaded and worked with the new one?

12:51How many still working with the sample? Some of you still working with the sample?

12:54What's that? [Inaudible audience question]

12:56Yeah. So what we're seeing here is the same basemap and so as a crime analyst...

13:02...or as a decision maker within the police department, I could come in and I could use this information to make decisions.

13:14So the first thing that I want to show you is that inside of the Web application, you still have access to the Time Slider.

13:21So what I could do is, I could iterate through those various different days and look at the crime incidents.

13:28So this is very useful for people that want to see what's happening within the area.

13:33In addition to that, I could come in and just click on a feature and I could see...

13:39...some information about that report or that crime that's happened.

13:43So I'm just going to kind of zoom in to this area, and as I continue to go through using the Time Slider...

13:49...I can see if there are any similar crimes that have happened within that area, a day apart, or a couple of days apart...

13:55...just to see if there's any trends in the number of crimes that have happened within that area.

14:03So in addition to that, we're looking in the background we see that grid that we created.

14:08The yellow areas showing our weekends, where weekends have higher crime rates...

14:11...and the blue areas showing where there's lower crime rates, or sorry, ...weekday crime rates.

14:18So what I’m going to do is just zoom in to an area, and I want to find out a little bit more about this information that's here.

14:25So what I’m going to do is just draw out an area.

14:29I want to find out some information about the crimes that have happened within this area here.

14:34So what it's showing me are a couple of charts, and if I look at this bar chart...'s telling me that, yeah, there's higher crime, so it's just as our grid is showing us.

14:43We have higher crime rates on the weekends compared to weekdays.

14:47We can see we've got lower amounts.

14:49But not just identifying where there's higher crimes on different days...

14:52...we also kind of want to know what types of crimes are happening within these areas.

14:56And so this pie chart is showing us the different... you see we've got quite a few thefts that have happened within the area...

15:04...quite a few robberies that have happened within the area as well.

15:08So this is just giving you an overview of just some of the new time-aware capabilities of ArcGIS 10...

15:16...and looking at how we can use it to visualize these crime incidents, as well as taking a look at...

15:22...some of the ways that we can view this information and use it for decision-making purposes.

15:28Okay. So what did you guys think of that demo? Did that...yeah...

15:36I told you it was a good demo.

15:40Actually, what's so interesting about that is that whenever we bring up those crime incidents...

15:44...those individual points, it gets the same response. It's like, my gosh.

15:50But it's hard to understand that information without using some types of spatial analysis...

15:56...and we, as you saw, we were using it and making it time aware.

16:01And then looking at it in a different way.

16:04And then applying those results to that Web application that we discussed earlier today.

16:11It allows people to start to see and use things in a different manner, that they might not have been able to do before.

16:18So that, as Jen identified, the person that's maybe looking at some of those police beats...

16:23...and how to optimize where to put resources on the weekend, they can maybe look at this as a planning tool...

16:31...based upon some of the information that they understand about criminal activity...

16:35...or that detective could look at it and begin maybe to discern different types of pattern...

16:42...and actually maybe solve a few cases of crime because it's time aware...

16:46...and you use some spatial analysis, not just a point on a map.

16:51The last component is about making that available to other people...

16:54...and it's for public hearings for people to understand what's going on.

16:58Let them be able to see things and understand what you're presenting to them.

17:03It's really powerful and I think it's something you can take advantage of today with time analysis.

17:13We've also taken a look at other additional tools to help you do better analysis...

17:19...and these two let the cat out of the bag a couple of times about background processing.

17:26No more can you just go ahead and run that geoprocess and say you're doing work...

17:31...and you can walk away and grab a cup of coffee, right?

17:36Now you have the ability to do work while that process is going.

17:40So making you more effective with the time and the resources that you have, and then getting those results to you.

17:49Additionally, we've looked at some of the raster performance concepts...

17:53...and when you have to do some sampling on a surface and then build a raster surface...'s been computer intensive and also it's been lengthy in getting those results.

18:02Well, we've taken a look at 10 and really increased the performance there.

18:06And I think that those that are doing that will see those improved results quickly.

18:13The modeling components improve modeling...

18:16...the Undo button there to eliminate all those mistakes that you make when you model.

18:21I mean, we're not perfect. Demonstrated that a few times here on this one, but it's there.

18:27I mean, the ability to do an undo, and then actually add in some additional iterations on that model... make it as complex as needed to run those results.

18:38The last component is about integrating in different types of models...

18:43...or mathematical analysis tools that you use through Python scripting.

18:47We reviewed that component this morning, but also Python scripting has the ability to consume and bring in this content...

18:55...and then bring those results together within ArcGIS, making it the ability to have those scientific tools at your disposal... look at the data that you're creating and maintaining, is pretty powerful.

19:11And allowing it to be scripted through and integrated with other results makes it only more powerful.

19:22We've taken a look at different types of spatial analysis functionality and we've looked at adding...

19:28...we're describing three that we've brought in...and brought in the 10 release.

19:35Some of these are pretty complex and advanced and what does it help you do?

19:39Well, it helps you, these models help you understand... the computer environment, some of the situations that are occurring on the surface.

19:49You know, making these models more realistic in representation of some of the features that are very complex...

19:56...and variables that may work back and forth with one another but there's not a defined, set result on that.

20:03And better than I to describe it further, let's go look of these now...

20:08...and it's the Fuzzy Logic application, and Katja will be driving it home with that one.

20:15All right. Thank you Tony.

20:18So how many of you have heard of fuzzy set theory?

20:22Okay, just a couple of you?

20:23So fuzzy set theory deals with logic that is not precise like the regular or crisp logic does.

20:32So for example, you can describe somebody as being young or being old...

20:42...or you can describe somebody as being too young or too old, kind of young, very young, very old, and so on.

20:46So those are examples of values that are not necessarily discrete.

20:51And in the ArcGIS 10 we have tools that deal with fuzzy logic.

20:56So let's take a look at the Bald Eagle Suitability Study for Nesting.

21:01And there are a couple of things that we know about bald eagles' nesting...

21:06...and one of them is that they prefer to nest in areas that have the... cover that is not too dense and not too sparse.

21:16So anywhere between 40 and 70 percent works well.

21:21They also like to nest in areas near large bodies of water.

21:27So here I've got the buffers of 500, 1,000, and 1,500 meters around Big Bear Lake.

21:35Another thing that we know about bald eagles is that they do not like any type of human disturbance.

21:42So be it roads or urban areas, they do not like nesting near those areas.

21:48And then of course, another thing that we know about the bald eagles is that they don't operate on polygons.

21:57So what I have done in here is, I've created a model...let me make it a little bit bigger...that takes these three variables...

22:07...the distance to water, human disturbance, and percentage of tree cover, and converts it into the fuzzy sets.

22:15And fuzzy sets have values from 0 to 1. They're not quite percentages.

22:20They're more like truth values or the values of suitability to what we know is good for bald eagles.

22:26And you can see that I have different graphs in here.

22:31So I'm using different functions to convert those variables to fuzzy sets.

22:35So in case of large distance...large bodies of water, as the distance increases, the suitability decreases quite rapidly.

22:43In case of human disturbance, as the distance to that human disturbance increases, so does the suitability.

22:52And then finally, with the percentage of tree cover, as I mentioned, about 40 to 70 percent is optimal.

23:01And the rest of the values are not quite so optimal. So we've got a different type of graph.

23:07So let's go ahead and run this model and create the surface that takes into account these three variables as fuzzy sets.

23:21So we'll create the membership sets and then convert them to fuzzy overlays.

23:28So...let me turn off the model inputs, and here for the outputs, I have...let's take a look at the model outputs.

23:39So I have the fuzzy human disturbance.

23:42So instead of having the polygons like we had before, we have a more uniform surface.

23:53Then if we take a look at the tree cover, we also converted that to a fuzzy set.

24:00And then finally, the distance to water.

24:05And here's the result. Where's the result? Oh, there we go.

24:14There's the result. I have to turn on the group layer to see the result.

24:18So you can see that instead of having broken-up kind of areas, we have a more continuous set.

24:25So what we were able to do is model the reality a little bit more accurately.

24:32So now let me show you some resources that you have available to you.

24:38I am looking at the ArcGIS Resource Center, and within the Functions area, we've got geoprocessing...

24:45...and the Geoprocessing Resource Center has a number of models and scripts within the gallery.

24:54Literally hundreds and hundreds of tools that were uploaded by Esri and users like you.

25:00So if I sort this by most downloaded, there is one particular tool that I find very interesting and that is using R in ArcGIS 10.

25:11And Tony mentioned a little bit about that.

25:14So this sample will show you how to integrate a statistical package, in this case R, using ArcPy.

25:25And that is another way that you can bring in those additional tools...

25:31...and models that you have created in other packages and integrate them in ArcGIS 10.


25:38Okay. All right.

25:42Were you able to see a real complex model mapped out and visualized fairly eas...

25:49...and it looked easy when you see the result, right?

25:53But that's the process, is being able to take those models...

25:58...and be able to generate a result that people can begin to understand.

26:02It may be city planners or it may be environmental groups or someone in public health...

26:07...that might need these types of scientific-based tools in order to do the work they were required to do.

26:17This is what differentiates you and the ability to have those tools.

26:25There are additional elements within spatial analysis that we can describe now and it's about...looking at network analysis.

26:32And this is actually pretty timely.

26:34Why is this important?

26:36Well, there's certain features that you may need to do time-based routing through a network...

26:43...a complex network that could look at different traffic patterns and flows...

26:47...but you have to deliver goods and services to these areas in a set amount of time.

26:53Not only to satisfy the customers, but what about being able to take your workforce that has to go out in the field...

26:59...and get them there optimally using the least amount of fuel, saving money.

27:06So within the network analysis you have the ability to do more time-based routing.

27:11Consider looking at that if you have those type of needs that are occurring.

27:16We've also looked at the incremental rebuilds and taking...

27:20...taking a look at how do you edit and maintain those networks that you're building these services on?

27:25So you have the ability to just edit and do a rebuild only on those sections that need to be serviced...I should say...

27:33...and then not infecting...not impeding you to use the other areas on the network.

27:40The last component is about location allocation.

27:43Jen actually did one of those...did a demonstration on that earlier today...

27:47...but it's about looking at load on the facilities that you may maintain.

27:53What is the impact of the resources on the network to those facilities that you may work on day to day?

28:00That's about what it is and we looked at it in the Parks example in relation to where the...

28:06...young population was.

28:10Now we'll take it...a little further look into that location-allocation regarding some evacuation scenarios. Jen?

28:20So as Tony mentioned...we just looked at the results of some location-allocation analysis in the first demonstration today...

28:27...where we were looking at the different playgrounds and how they were allocated to citizens that had small children.

28:34So what I'd like to do now... just take a moment to show you another example of location-allocation analysis.

28:41In this situation, we're going to use it for community planning.

28:44So let's say, for example, the City of Glendora is looking for the best two evacuation facilities...

28:53...that would serve their citizens in the event of some kind of emergency.

28:57So what I'm going to do first is just show you the data that's in our maps.

29:00So those purple dots are indicating our blocks, so the number of people and household units...

29:05...and the green points are showing us the different evacuation facilities.

29:10I’m just going to go ahead and draw a barrier around the Glendora High School.

29:14So what the barrier is doing, it's not actually eliminating that area from the analysis.

29:22What it's doing is it's applying a cost to us using that facility and that cost could be several things.

29:28It could be high traffic volumes, it could be construction that's happening within the area.

29:33So there's lots of different reasons that you might want to apply these barriers.

29:37So again, we don't eliminate it from the analysis. We're just associating a higher cost with that area.

29:43So what it's doing now, the analysis is going to first of all pick the best two locations for all of those citizens...

29:53...within the Glendora area and allocate each one of those blocks to one of those evacuation facilities.

29:58And so the analysis has returned and if I just kind of hover my mouse over this flag... tells me the number of blocks and the number of people that that facility will be accommodating.

30:10So all of those...this is their closest emergency evacuation facility.

30:14If I go down here, you can see this one has 151 blocks and just over...close to 15,000 people.

30:21That's their closest evacuation facility.

30:24Some additional results that have been returned to me is it lets me know what is the shortest travel time for somebody?

30:31What's the longest travel time? And what's the average travel time?

30:34So you can see that this is pretty good. Most of the citizens can get there within just over two minutes.

30:41So this is just another example of how location-allocation analysis can be used...

30:46...and we used it in this example to determine some evacuation areas for the City of Glendora.

30:53Great. Okay. Thank you.

31:01So as you saw with location-allocation, it has the ability to do some things based upon the facilities that you manage and maintain.

31:08Think about some of the things in your community that rely upon this.

31:13It can be that the fire station in relation to the housing development that's going in.

31:19Or being able to look at facilities in relation to the other services you're providing.

31:25So take a look at location allocation.

31:27It was only available originally in the workstation for a number of years...

31:32...and now it's at the desktop level, so it's a tool and resource available for you to use.

31:38So this concludes our section about spatial analysis, but there's a couple key components here...

31:44...hopefully, you can take away from, is that it takes your information...

31:48...and makes it more valuable, more knowledgeable.

31:52The ability to share those results about the information you collect and maintain.

31:59It allows those decision makers the ability to see the impact of what some of the changes...

32:06...that may occur based upon different types of decisions they're trying to make.

32:10It also empowers you, the GIS professional, to provide those resources.

32:14So this is the key component, because you understand the data...

32:18...and you understand the spatial analysis components that are required to do these kind of things.

32:23So this provides you, to your community, added value and the things that you’re doing.

Copyright 2016 Esri
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just wow!! that's a recommended software for my bussiness...


Dec 7th, 2010. 1:34:45 AM

good job i hope to be with this cleaver group


Nov 17th, 2010. 1:19:24 PM

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