Taking GIS Inside Buildings: Facilities Management and Analysis

Stuart Rich from PenBay Solutions presents "Taking GIS Inside Buildings: Facilities Management and Analysis" at the 2011 GeoDesign Summit.
 

Feb 18th, 2011

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00:01It's my pleasure to introduce Stu Rich from PenBay Media.

00:04He's going to be talking a little bit to us about how we can go inside the walls and look at...

00:10...design analysis and planning inside the buildings.

00:15My name's Stu Rich, and what really winds my clock, what gets me passionate...

00:21...is thinking about taking the power of GIS and applying it to the insides of the building.

00:28I think it's a real opportunity for us, particularly those of us who are focused on...

00:35...urban environments, to extend our thinking inside the building.

00:41I think it's really important, I think there's a lot of value that we can gain out of that.

00:45And I want to talk a little bit about how that value gets realized and what some of that looks like...

00:53...but before I do that, I want to talk a little bit more about why I think it's so important.

01:03There we go.

01:05If you look at the planet and you look at our urban environments, whether it's in...

01:12...Vancouver or São Paulo or Boston or Shanghai, we're seeing a tremendous growth...

01:21...in our urban environments.

01:23We're seeing a tremendous building boom as we are witnessing one of the greatest migrations of...

01:33...humanity that the world has ever seen.

01:35In 2000, we became a prominently, a predominantly urban species.

01:43In the year 2000, there were, for the first time, more people living in urban environments...

01:48...than in rural environments.

01:51And all of the trends that are driving that migration have no sign of easing in any way.

01:58In fact, it looks like they are going to be increasing.

02:02As a species, that's probably a very good thing because we're able to support population...

02:07...densities in our urban environments that are much greater than in our rural environments...

02:13...and that takes pressure off some of our agricultural lands and some of our more fragile environments.

02:19But the implications for our urban infrastructure is profound.

02:28If you look at the drivers of greenhouse gas emissions, if you look at what is chewing up...

02:35...our carbon footprint here, the predominant factor by far is our buildings.

02:43Somebody used the term "building tailpipe" the other day, or "facility tailpipe"...

02:47...I thought it was interesting.

02:49But the emissions coming out of that building tailpipe far exceed the emissions...

02:54...from industry or transportation.

02:56So, if we're looking for the big numbers that we want to really get a handle on...

03:01...addressing greenhouse gas in a significant way, we really need to look at managing our buildings.

03:09The situation is even more frightening if you look at the consumption of raw materials...

03:14...for the construction trades.

03:17So this light blue curve on the top there represents the amount of raw materials that are consumed...

03:27...by construction materials in the US from about 1900, on.

03:34So, no matter how, we're moving toward a greener construction industry and the materials...

03:42...are greener, but my goodness, there's such a huge amount of our world's resources...

03:48...that is being consumed by construction materials that I'm of the opinion that the greenest building...

03:58...is the one that we never build, and we really need to try to focus on building fewer buildings...

04:05...before we focus on building greener buildings.

04:10There's a real interesting paradox here.

04:16We are, on the one hand, building new space at an incredible rate, particularly in places like...

04:24...Shanghai, where every year, the city of Shanghai, or the urban environment of Shanghai...

04:32...adds more building space than exists in all of Manhattan.

04:37That's a phenomenal rate, and there are a lot of other places in China and other parts of the world...

04:42...where that level of construction is going on.

04:45If you've been to Shanghai recently, it's absolutely mind blowing; it's breathtaking and...

04:53...to my view, a bit frightening.

04:56On the other hand, particularly in the first world, in North America and Europe...

05:04...we have existing buildings that are going to be with us for some time.

05:08In New York City, they estimate that the current building stock, 85 percent of that, will be with us in 2030.

05:17So we really need to think about, how do we address that existing building stock...

05:24...which is unlikely to have some of the rich BIM kinds of datasets that we have been looking at...

05:34...in the past couple of days.

05:38So, if that's the problem, and if you're not duly frightened about that problem...

05:44...I would suggest you've not been paying attention.

05:47How do we apply geodesign to that problem?

05:52So Carl Steinitz suggested there are six fundamental questions surrounding geodesign.

05:59Carl, I apologize if I have misrepresented your thinking in any way.

06:05It's about, how do we understand geography as it exists?

06:10How do we understand how that geography operates?

06:13Once we understand that, how do we start thinking about how we might alter geography...

06:20...and then how do we develop scenarios around that and evaluate those scenarios...

06:25...against different metrics.

06:27And then at the end of the day, how do we apply some sort of value framework like the triple bottom line...

06:32...that we saw from David yesterday, that comes up, helps us make a decision about...

06:38...which course of action is going to be the appropriate one, given the values that we're...

06:43...bringing to this problem.

06:46So if that's geodesign, how do we take that conceptual framework and apply it to the...

06:54...in-building environment?

06:56I would suggest there are two things that we need to do to extend our thinking to...

07:02...apply it to the interior environment.

07:05One is we need to extend our thinking to include a plan in process, beyond just building things.

07:13It's not just about building buildings, building parks, building things; it's about designing our processes.

07:19It's about how we use our things, as much as anything.

07:22So I'll give you an example.

07:24This beautiful Esri campus houses about 2,000 people currently, and consumes, I don't how much energy...

07:32...but probably a fair amount.

07:35If we were to understand the energy consumed by the transportation to and from this campus...

07:43...every day, as those 2,000 folks make their way in to work in the morning and home...

07:49...and we were to include some sort of a transportation policy that says, okay, I want everybody...

07:54...to telecommute one day a week...

07:57...the impact of that policy decision, that use decision on this campus, would have much more...

08:03...effect on the sustainability, or the carbon footprint if nothing else, of this total organization...

08:13...then applying the best possible energy practices to the whole set of buildings.

08:21So, policy and operations are really important.

08:26If we can up our space occupancy on this campus from 85 to 90 percent, that's just a five percent...

08:35...increase in occupancy.

08:38We can accommodate another 100 people on this campus before we need to think about...

08:42...building another building.

08:44There's that green building again, that one that we're not building, right?

08:49The second thing I think we need to do is we need to extend our concept of GIS and of...

08:57...geodesign to a finer level of granularity.

09:01We are very comfortable in the geospatial profession, with global-level analyses down to regional, city...

09:09...even down to campus levels where we start to see buildings be represented maybe as block...

09:16...models, but we need to, in my view, extend that geographic scale to the interiors of buildings.

09:27Over the years, we have built just these marvelous datasets across our world, most particularly in the US.

09:37We have these beautiful spatial data fabrics that include utilities and transportation...

09:43...and crime statistics and demographics and this beautiful fabric that is at its most glorious in...

09:51...even in our urban environments where we've invested more.

09:54And yet, there are all these holes in the fabric.

09:59You look at the GIS fabric when it comes to the building footprint and it stops.

10:04Now that doesn't mean that our business processes stop; there we've spent the most of our time...

10:08...in those holes.

10:10We've put the most of our money into those holes.

10:12That's the greatest concentration of our financial capital that we have is in those holes.

10:17And yet, we haven't mapped them.

10:20In Manhattan, again - I keep going back to Manhattan; I've got to come up with a better set of examples.

10:25In Manhattan, there is six times more floor space than there is land area.

10:30So even if we've mapped every square inch of the land area in Manhattan, we have mapped only...

10:35...16 percent of what's going on there.

10:38We can do better than that.

10:40We must do better than that.

10:43We started on Thursday morning, Eric. Where's Eric?

10:47Eric started to show us the application of GIS to the insides of multiuse buildings at the floor level...

10:56...and even at the suite level.

10:58That's the start of where I think we're headed.

11:01But I think we can go further; we need to go further.

11:04This is an example in the city of Boston, where the public safety community needed, needs to understand the insides...

11:13...of buildings so that they can manage their emergency action plans, and at the same time, the data...

11:20...that is being developed and delivered through a GIS application for public safety is also delivering...

11:27...space and occupancy and asset management to their capital planning and their school department.

11:35So, like we see in other GIS patterns, you have a spatial data infrastructure that is able to be repurposed...

11:44...and multipurposed for a variety of different communities of interest.

11:53If we're going to get there, we need to be smart about repurposing other datasets that are available to us.

12:01There's been a lot of talk, particularly within our idea lab yesterday, about interchange between...

12:06...BIM and GIS, between CAD and GIS.

12:10There is sort of an unfortunate religiosity - that's a poor word - that grows up around technologies and you get these debates about, well...

12:21...this is a BIM problem or that's a GIS problem, or GIS needs to grow to handle that, or BIM's going to...

12:27...handle it all because we're going to build this great BIM in the sky, and it gets to a discussion...

12:36...about which is the better tool for the job.

12:40So, which is the better tool? Pick one.

12:43It's precisely the wrong question.

12:45Which is the better tool is not the right question, and if we're going to get forward, it's not about getting the...

12:50...right answers about it, it's about getting the right questions.

12:55The question is, how do we use all of the tools available to us to solve the complex problems at hand?

13:01One of those things that I was so excited about Kimon yesterday, is that Kimon's not about building...

13:07...the uber tools, right?

13:09He's about building the uber connector, so that he can use a variety of tools and formats...

13:15...to very quickly work through design problems.

13:21And it's not just a spatial problem, either.

13:24There's a whole bunch of other enterprise systems that we need to interoperate with, so it's not just a...

13:29...BIM and GIS question, it's not a CAD and GIS question.

13:33It's a systems integration question between our maintenance management system or our ERP or our financials.

13:39It's how do we drive better performance out of this facilities fabric at all levels.

13:48So I think that there is tremendous opportunity for us to take the tools, the visualization and analysis tools...

13:59...that GIS gives us, the conceptual tools that geodesign gives us for a rational method of analyzing our problems...

14:10...and applying that to the built environment.

14:13And that application can be done in a number of different areas across the facility life cycle.

14:20What that looks like in site selection or design evaluation or space and occupancy is very different...

14:29...but the analysis toolset and the conceptual toolset, I think, is very applicable to the...

14:35...interior environment just as it is in the exterior environment.

14:39And I think that until we include the interior environment as a holistic analysis of our urban areas...

14:47...we're not really going to achieve a holistic sense of what is sustainability, what is livability...

14:53...what is it that makes our urban environments more attractive places to live.

15:03So, what I want to do next is I want to show you just a little bit of what this might look like...

15:10...as we're applying tools of GIS to the built environment.

15:15There's no way that we can address all of this whole facility life cycle, but I have a little bit of video...

15:23...that Craig McCabe, thankfully, and Eric have helped me pull together that should...

15:29...illustrate this to a certain extent.

15:36How do I get access to that cursor?

15:38Is that my cursor? It is. Isn't that beautiful.

15:41All right.

15:42I don't see it on my screen, so I'll watch with you.

15:46So, this is building M that you all may be familiar with and the first thing we're going to do here...

15:56...Ah! Help me stop it.

15:58First thing we're going to do here is an evacuation analysis for ADA compliance.

16:12How do I stop it? I can't. Okay.

16:16What you see is a transportation network here, and we have turned off the transportation network...

16:21...for stairs because this is an ADA compliance model, and what you're going to see is the network analysis being run...

16:31...to figure out, how long does it take someone that is wheelchair bound to get out of the building using the elevator?

16:38So the redlines that you see are the transportation network, and you see it all consolidates around...

16:44...that single vertical line, which is the elevator, right?

16:48So if we run the transportation model here and run the analysis for all of these various segments...

16:56...what we get is a time - oh, I've come back - but I have no control.

17:08Okay.

17:10What we have is a time and we can create a histogram of that time that shows us all of the various times...

17:20...for the different offices to get out.

17:25And, what we'll find is that for some of these offices at the very upper end of the histogram, it takes...

17:33...about two minutes to get out.

17:36Now, this part of building M - if I can stop it here - okay, so this part of building M - this part...

17:52...of building M right here, this ell, was an addition, okay?

17:57So it was put on after the original part of building L, and for reasons of evacuation...

18:06...and others, there was a need to add a sky bridge essentially, to connect the ell back to the original part...

18:14...of the building over here, which gets the whole building more walkable, more accessible...

18:20...and oh, by the way, drives ADA compliance to be more effective.

18:27So if we rerun that analysis now, so here comes the little sky bridges that connect up, see this sky bridge...

18:35...come across - so that allows connectivity to the other part of the building, right?

18:40So now we rerun our analysis, and what you'll see is that when we pull up used-to, was, and could be...

18:50...histograms, we'll find that we have driven our evacuation times down by about 30 percent, which is...

19:00So what we're doing here is we're applying that feedback loop to evaluate the alternative scenarios...

19:14...of putting in additional sky bridges into the system, right?

19:21Okay, the next scenario uses the same data, uses that network. It's a simple network to look at...

19:32...space and occupancy problems.

19:35So the basic problem here is that we have a software release team that is scattered out through the building...

19:45...and you'll see, the release team there is in blue.

19:48We're hiring a new manager for this release team, and we have 12 spaces that are qualified as manager spaces.

19:58So these spaces in red that you see are those opportunities that we have to put the new manager in.

20:05And the basic question is, what I want to do is I want to optimize so that the, I'm driving down the...

20:13...collective walk time for the manager to the folks he's managing, so that they have the most face time...

20:19...or the most potential face time with their manager without having to walk all over the planet.

20:24So I'm going to take that same basic network and I'm going to apply a model to that...

20:31...and I'm going to solve this model to optimize for walk times based on how far and how long it takes...

20:40...for each of these folks that the manager manages to his office for a little tête-a-tête.

20:47What we find is that this then is the optimal location of that manager.

20:53It doesn't need to be represented as a geometric form; we could put him in there as any kind of graphic...

21:00...as long as it conforms to the dress code.

21:05So the next demo here shows the, sort of a different flavor of that same question.

21:20The question here is, we have six printers that we can put in this building, and we have 15 or 20 different places.

21:33We have 15 or 20 places that have sufficient power, network jack, to put printers.

21:38We want to put these big, high-cost printers in places that optimize for walk time.

21:45So, the analysis is similar, but again, for a different community of interest.

21:54What we're try to do here is optimize and reduce the cost of placing printers while still allowing for...

22:04...a reasonable walk time for all of our people.

22:08So those purple lines all represent the potential places to put printers, and we have location-allocation...

22:16...model that is run, and what that does is it locates those places where the printer should optimally...

22:26...be placed and also identifies the attachments, if you will, for which offices the model thinks are...

22:34...most appropriate to go to which printers.

22:37Now, the printer is just another GIS object - an intelligent GIS object that we can imbue with attributes...

22:44...and we can put into our campus viewer, and we can make available to the folks that live in building M...

22:52...so that they can locate that printer on their little floor plan and get access to the appropriate drivers and...

23:02...figure out how do they connect to that printer and send their timesheet there.

23:12So, again, we're repurposing that single network for a different community of interest.

23:19The last demo that we have to show you here is a fire response demo.

23:26The basic problem here is we have these standpipes or water sources throughout the building and we want...

23:36...to know, for our evacuation planning, how far can we reach from that standpipe with a 50-foot piece...

23:43...of hose, 100-foot piece of hose, a 200-foot piece of hose, and does that, and then address our fire protection needs.

23:54So, again, we have located these assets, in this case standpipes, throughout the building.

24:03These vertical lines now represent fire standpipes, and we're going to repurpose that network again...

24:10...only this time, the network represents fire hose lengths.

24:15We're going to chunk that network up into 50-, 100-, and 200-foot sections.

24:21So that green sections you see there are 50-foot sections from the standpipe; then you add the yellow...

24:29...that's the 100-foot; and then the red comes in, those are the...that's 200 feet that you can reach...

24:36...from that particular standpipe.

24:38Now if you look at this end of the building here, you'll see that we're a bit of a ways from the building...

24:46...from the standpipe anyway, but pretty close to the end of the building.

24:51If we were to put an external fire hydrant out there, what would that do to our overall model?

24:58So we're going to place an external fire hydrant there, and then we are going to rerun that model and evaluate...

25:06...what does that do to our fire service ability for this particular facility?

25:23So, interestingly enough, on the first and second floors, that's a pretty effective strategy, but on the third floor...

25:30...particularly on this end of that wing, it has a less effect than we might have hoped.

25:38So what I hope we've shown you there, a little bit, is how GIS can be applied to the insides of the buildings...

25:50...in meaningful and effective ways, how that can be used in a geodesign framework in terms of...

25:58...design evaluation and feedback and measuring different kinds of aspects of using and optimizing our...

26:07...facilities within the geodesign concept.

26:14So that's the end of my presentation, just about on time.

26:20I guess we have a few minutes for questions.

26:23Yeah, we do. We have four minutes

26:25I'll take a couple questions.

26:33Any questions?

26:35I just want to point out briefly you all now know how to pick your office at Esri so you're farthest away from...

26:40...your manager; closest to a good printer; and if you don't like your office, you can burn the building down.

26:54Are there any questions?

26:58[Audience comment] I have comments, too.

27:00Pointing out that there's a concept, called building geography that may be new to our thinking.

27:05It extends the concept of geography, interior space as well as exterior space.

27:10That's exactly right, yes.

27:12I think that we need and want to extend our concept of geography into this 3D environment that is the...

27:22...inside of our buildings and facilities.

27:26And, it's an interesting space because it is very three dimensional, and yet it, we participate through that...

27:36...environment with the whole rest of the urban design, so the demo that Eric showed on Thursday...

27:46...that starts to address how the insides of buildings can be repurposed and what those interior land uses...

27:58...if you will, mean to the overall sustainability fabric of the neighborhood.

28:04I think that's a tremendous opportunity for the design community.

28:09It's one of those areas where I'd love to spend a week with my friend Jim Querry, just thinking through...

28:15...those kinds of things for Philadelphia, specifically. Briefly.

28:20[Audience question] Isn't it easier and cheaper to gather data inside a building?

28:26The question is, is it getting easier and cheaper to gather data inside buildings?

28:32And the answer to that is, yes, actually.

28:35The data that we were showing from this campus was gathered with a system we used that is essentially...

28:43...a mobile lidar unit, and so you push the unit through and it is gathering floor spaces as it goes.

28:53It's not as good an alternative as harvesting from CAD or BIM if you have those sources...

29:00...but for those 90 percent of the buildings where those datasets may be less than optimal, it's a very workable approach.

29:14Any other questions?

29:15Actually, let's move on to the next speaker.

29:17Thank you so much, Stu.

Copyright 2014 Esri
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