00:12Sometimes you change jobs because you get fired. Or you fail. So sometimes what it looks like, it didn't really happen.
00:24You go from one thing to another because something went wrong, or you have a different curiosity or something.
00:34I was just backstage and my name came up as the keynote speaker, and I had this flash memory of...
00:43...in junior high school we used to try to be cute by saying our names backwards.
00:50And my name was backwards back there, namruw luas drahcir. I hadn't thought of that in so long.
01:02And just doing those little skip memory of things is another path to learn from.
01:10My earliest memory was the 1939 Worlds Fair. I was four years old.
01:22And the symbol was the Trylon and Perisphere and I remember this amazing model of the city of the future.
01:32And I was just smitten with that. I thought, Wow! And I really thought it all was going to happen.
01:41I mean, I just...I get seduced into anything.
01:45You know, somebody I was sitting with at lunch and they said nice things about me and I said...
01:49...you know, that they could seduce me into compliance.
02:01Flattery will get you everywhere.
02:10I studied architecture and I got my master's degree in architecture...
02:18...and I started teaching because my mentor, Louis Khan, said I should teach for a couple years.
02:26And so I went down to North Carolina and started teaching. And I was 26 so I was assistant professor of architecture.
02:33And I was shocked. I was from Philly and I was shocked that people didn't understand where things were.
02:41So I made up a project and I bought some white plasticine, kindergarten clay, the stuff that never hardens.
02:52And I picked some cities and we made some models. And that's on your poster, those little models.
02:58Those are 48 years old. And I had two surprises.
03:05Halfway through, it took six weeks; three weeks for half of the cities and three weeks for the other half.
03:10We divided it in half because I had to scrape the clay off the first ones to use them in the second batch, because I didn't have a penny.
03:18And I was surprised that people liked the book. And I thought it had've been done oh, just many times before.
03:28That of course you'd want to see what one city looked like next to another city.
03:33You'd want to see things comparatively.
03:40That hasn't left me for my whole life.
03:44A kind of grammar, a kind of series of laws of how to understand things.
03:49What I call Information Architecture.
03:51And I invented that term when I was National Chairman of the AIA Convention in Philadelphia in '76...
03:58...and it was called the Architecture of Information.
04:01And there is a grammar to information and visual representation.
04:06Some information is nouns, and some of the information you put on top of it is verbs.
04:14And we all understand grammar, but we have no grammar, no set of rules, for how we describe where everybody in the whole...
04:24...well, half of everybody, in the whole world, lives.
04:29And that fascinates me.
04:30I gave a little talk, a short one, sort of semi-impromptu, to this executive meeting yesterday.
04:39And one of the things I said is that most people, and certainly there's a lot of most peoples in this room...
04:50...most people sell their expertise. And that's the way society seems to move ahead.
04:56In fact, that's the way all conversations take place, that you tell somebody about your expertise.
05:02But when you have expertise you have a limited repertoire. You have expertise in a certain thing.
05:10Well I sell my ignorance and I have an unlimited repertoire.
05:17So it is the things that I don't understand that I sell.
05:23And that's why, as Jack said, I move from subject area to subject area.
05:28I've done these 80-some books and they're on about 60 subjects.
05:31I've done them on sports, I've done six on medicine...
05:35...a couple on business, Wall Street Journal Guide to Money and Markets. 00:05:38
05:39At the same time, they're all on one subject.
05:44A passion to find a pattern. A passion to take the journey from not knowing to knowing.
05:54See, I think that's the secret. It sounds very Zen-like. I'm not Zen. But think of that, and think if you're able to do that.
06:04Can you put yourself in a place where you understand what it's like not to understand?
06:15Can you blank yourself so that when you see something up there and somebody shows you some diagram or some flowchart...
06:24...or some map or something with 28 layers on it, you actually can say, I don't understand that thing at all!
06:30And you're not ashamed.
06:35We're all ashamed of showing our ignorance.
06:40And I will tell you, you don't understand most of what you see.
06:44You don't understand most of what you read well enough to tell a literate 12-year old. You just don't.
06:55Well, you should applaud yourself if you can get there, because it is so fundamental to understanding.
07:01And what business are we in, you can say it after me, we're in the understanding business.
07:08We're in the understanding business.
07:12We are trying to communicate some pattern to another human being or group of human beings, and to ourselves.
07:22It's not easy to actually have another person understand a semblance of what you understand.
07:32And it's not by putting more on a surface, or more on a map, or using bigger words, or more footnotes...
07:40...or more references, or all the things that you show off trying to be smart.
07:45We're all stupid! We, collectively, are stupid trying to get...finding patterns, finding something that warms us up...
07:54...that we can tell another person about and change the way they see things and to help them in the patterns that they make.
08:03A map is a pattern made understandable.
08:08And these maps shocked me in 1962 or whenever, of being able to see the relative size of one place next to another.
08:17I had no idea. I didn't know that Angkor was as big as Paris.
08:26Those who call it Angkor Wat are wrong, that's just one of the 72 temple complexes.
08:35And any place you begin with learning ends up some other place.
08:42Two days ago I was thinking well, what's the biggest geographic problem? I guess it's the whole earth.
08:48And Jack talked about mapping the whole earth.
08:52And I realized, when I started researching it, and this is just two days old that shocked me, that in 240 B.C. ...
09:04...somebody had written that their estimate that the circumference of the earth was the equivalent in today's terms of 25,000 miles...
09:14...that it was round and it was 25,000 miles.
09:18And as everybody in here knows, it's 24,901 miles. Isn't that amazing?
09:27That there were centuries that they then thought it was flat and you were killed or ostracized or worse for saying that it was round...
09:36...and yet somebody could estimate that it was round and approximately the size at 240 B.C.
09:48Well, I'm always surprised by these stories. I'm surprised at how change happens.
09:55At lunch I was sitting next to a gentlemen who was up on the stage earlier...
10:00...I was just saying, in 1848 when...I'm forgetting his name...died...the richest person...
10:11Oh, Jon Jacob Astor. He died, and he was the richest person on earth and he made his money from selling beaver pelts.
10:20And then when the Vanderbilts died, they were the richest people on earth, they made it from railroads.
10:26And then we just had a great speech by a gentleman from Mexico...
10:31...and there were more millionaires in the world living in the Yucatán and Campeche...
10:37two of the three states in that bump in Mexico.
10:40Now that bump in Mexico, everybody calls that whole bump the Yucatán.
10:44You know it isn't the Yucatán, it's three states...
10:48...and one of those states, the Quintana Roo, didn't become a state until 1915 and was lawless until 1931.
10:55But in Campeche and in the Yucatán, they grew rope.
11:01And rope was ubiquitous in the world because there was no corrugated cardboard or wire or anything...
11:06...and the industrial revolution made shipping things from around the world absolutely important, raw goods, manufactured goods.
11:16So the wealthiest people on earth lived in that area.
11:21These are the patterns of change that you can map, you can make clear, you can tell a story...
11:27...but you can be ready for the next change, because change will occur.
11:32Everything you think is a pattern now will change.
11:37So here we are, most people live in cities and so we want to collect information on those cities.
11:47That little beautiful, beautiful film that Jon Kamen and his staff did, kept on asking the question, How?
11:56And isn't it ultimately always about a question? How many people live here? How does this work? How does this happen?
12:03How does crime happen? How do we learn? How do we do everything?
12:08Well, most of us can't ask a good question.
12:11Most of our questions aren't even good and we never take a course in how to ask a question.
12:16And yet, it's the question that gets us the answer.
12:20So if we ask questions about what makes up a city and we want to display it, don't we have to have a border to that city?
12:31Do we all recognize the fact that there is no methodology for putting a border around a city?
12:39There are political borders, but there are no borders around the cities...
12:44...and every city of any size has gone over the edge of the political boundaries.
12:49Therefore, any question we ask and any information we map becomes trivial...
12:55...because we don't know the area within which we're mapping it.
12:58So we can't get any density. We can't show things comparatively.
13:03We don't have a language. We're all speaking a different language.
13:07We all understand numbers, but we don't understand, in a collective way, the base of maps that has to do with questions...
13:14...that has to do with answers, that has to do with a system of displaying information. And that fascinates me.
13:23I'm trying to do the same thing with health. And Jack said I'm running a health care conference.
13:29I'm trying to make the questions you ask be able to be answered in a way that's comparative so you can understand about yourself and others.
13:38It's the simplest, dumbest, dumbest thing that I can think of is what attracts me.
13:45You know, there's a comedian that does one liners, Steve Wright, and he says...
13:50..."Everything is in walking distance if you have enough time."
13:56Is there a person in this room who hasn't asked of somebody, "Is it in walking distance?"
14:02Do you realize what a stupid question that is? What is walking distance?
14:09It depends on the weather, the heat, how far you want to walk, how dangerous it is, how comfortable it is, how interesting it is.
14:19It's not a good question.
14:23So think about the questions you're asking of these incredible maps that all of you are producing, all this information.
14:33There is not an information overload.
14:36There is an overload of non-information, of data that's not put in a form that we can understand.
14:45Understanding precedes action.
14:56When I tell people I'm kind of interested in cities and they say, oh, good, you're going to make the cities better.
15:02No, I'm not going to make cities better. I don't have an idea of how to make cities better.
15:08I'm not working on making cities better, or schools better, or less crime.
15:13I'm working on just understanding the phenomena of cities.
15:17Because until we understand them, we can't take action.
15:26I am known to talk for a very long time.
15:28I might get up and talk a little bit more about some things...
15:30...but we're going to move it on and I'll have another chance to get back at us.
15:34Jon, are you around?
15:35Oh no, first we're going to have Hugh Keegan who we've worked with at Esri...
15:40...and show a couple demos over the old work, okay? Hugh.
15:45You want to come over here and stand next to me?
15:46Oh yeah, I'll do that.
15:48So this is kind of an homage to the posters, the models that Richard and his students made back in '62.
15:56In 1980 when I was a graduate student, I actually found these in the Loeb Library in the stacks.
16:01They came in a little 6" x 6", 8" x 8" box.
16:05It was a fat thing, and I remember opening the box and spreading these photographs on the floor...
16:12...and I was stunned by the very same thing that Saul is still trying to communicate.
16:16It's like, Wow! Look at London compared to...pick a different place.
16:21It was just...it gave me goose bumps, it gives me goose bumps still.
16:25So what we did was, we just put together a little application where we took some of these maps...
16:30...we published them as services, and we've put them behind current, contemporary satellite imagery.
16:39And you've got to remember, '62, no digital elevation models, no commercial satellite imagery.
16:46You know, okay, they were working from maps, but these are clay models.
16:52And we georeferenced these some, but you get some idea of just how great these things actually are.
16:58Your students did a terrific job.
17:00It's like finding a kid that you never knew you had.
17:05Which might happen!
17:21Anyway, this is, we put this together, we thought this was just so, so cool.
17:27We'll probably get this out on an Esri Web site someplace.
17:31But this is imagery contributed by our partners and our users...
17:38...and you can just see what a great job these students did such a long time ago.
17:42But it's just cool to compare these side by side, don't you think?
17:46Is it just me? Okay.
17:51It was 20 students, for six weeks, and it wasn't a project they were doing for class. It was just after hours.
17:57I've got to tell you, when I was in the library I was thinking, man, maybe I should have gone to North Carolina.
18:02And then I thought you know, I'm actually learning GIS, maybe I'll stay here. Maybe this is time to bring on Jon.
18:08Okay. Jon Kamen.
18:19Jon is the founder and the owner of Radical Media, and a friend of mine.
18:25And the third partner, Jack, and Jon, and myself, in 19, 20, 21, it's a very simple little partnership.
18:32We each own a third, and we're just struggling to try to make an idea understandable.
18:38And well, we've known each other for a couple years and look at this in the good way...
18:48...it seems like we've known each other forever.
18:51But the positive side of that, it seems like we've known each other for a long, long time...
18:56...and I enjoy his company so very much. Jon, why don't you show us something?
19:02So I have known Richard a very long time. He just didn't recognize me until many years later.
19:09Of course, the TED Conference, for any of you who may have attended it or any of you who might see it online...
19:17...was a very inspiring experience for a young man learning and wanting to learn more about...
19:24...in many cases, as Richard will admit, his curiosities.
19:29And post-TED, we were in touch and talked about perhaps doing a project together and thinking about different things.
19:40And my company does all sorts of different types of projects.
19:43We produce documentaries, we produce television shows...
19:46...we produce work in the advertising world as well as digital platforms and all sorts of interesting design projects.
19:54And Richard called me at Radical Media and he said, "Jon, I have a new idea." "What's that, Richard?"
20:02He said, "19, 20, 21." I said, "What's that?"
20:10He said, "19 cities in the world that are going to have a population of over 20 million people in the 21st century."
20:24I said, "Really?" He said, "Well, not yet but there will be."
20:29And in fact, our journey began.
20:31We started thinking about this project, what it could be, how we could manifest it in terms of multiple platforms...
20:43...thinking of it in terms of television, in terms of an online presence, having some technology that was built into it...
20:52...which we were very fortunate along the way to meet Jack Dangermond and the wonderful folks at Esri...
20:59...and we started working on this project.
21:03But Richard insisted on one thing. He insisted that the very foundation of the initial work was based on maps.
21:15I really didn't know that much about your world, but I do know that Richard has always been a huge fan...
21:22...and sits in his fabulous office with this fantastic map, and I knew that maps were a very important part of his life...
21:30...and his concept of information architecture.
21:34And we started talking about the project a little further and what we thought we might be able to do.
21:39And we started going out to see different companies that might be able to support a very lofty project like this.
21:48And I remember going out, and we had this one simple saying that...
21:53...not only would mass urbanization be a defining mega trend of the 21st century, but more importantly...
22:03...in Richard's simple terms, no two cities measured themselves the same way.
22:10And people would look at us incredulously. They didn't believe that that's possible.
22:16And we said no, if you look at an atlas, if you look at a map...
22:20In fact, the last time it was done, really, with the same scale, was practically in 1962 with Richard's clay models.
22:29And we said well, hang on a second, that's not possible.
22:31And we started to visit a couple of companies and in fact...
22:34...one of them asked us to do a little bit of a proof of concept, really look into this concept.
22:43And so we went, and IBM commissioned us to work on this first phase of this project, which was help us define a city.
22:55What is a city? And ultimately...and how do we define it? Where does a city center? Where does a city end?
23:09And ultimately, how do you determine its edge? Because cities have grown tremendously.
23:18As Richard described before, and as we've heard in so many of the earlier presentations today...
23:25...and in many ways we've become a planet of cities.
23:28You don't travel from one country to another country, you normally will actually...your destination is a city.
23:36So after having this epiphany of this missing component, we were setting out on our way...
23:44...and we commissioned the good folks at NatGeo to produce a set of mini maps for us.
23:51And these mini maps were set all to the same scale, 50 square miles, 80 kilometers.
23:58The highlighted area being the general population, not density, but the area of population...
24:06...and we started to see, just as Richard predicted, a pattern began to form.
24:13And that pattern started to show us some very unique and interesting things.
24:17We learned something, and my team at Radical has been so fantastic in terms of really becoming students of this technology...
24:26...and understanding, and the concept of understanding.
24:29We learned that there were cultural influences that affected a city.
24:34Take Beijing on the top left, the feng shui of the city forced the development of it going to the lower right.
24:42And if you look toward Los Angeles, you'll see that infamous mountain range where the Hollywood sign that defines the city...
24:50If we look a little further at another set of cities, you see certain patterns.
24:55Calcutta is an urban sprawl today.
24:58There is nothing that's holding in the city and its development.
25:02And yet, if you take a closer look at Mumbai or London, Mumbai has a density six times that of London, but all on that one island.
25:13And London has a manmade agricultural greenbelt that defines the city and doesn't allow it to grow beyond its existing pattern.
25:27If you look a little further at two other cities that we know quite well, Tokyo and Mexico City.
25:34Typically we think of them as the same population, about 35 million each. But it’s a little strange.
25:41Again, Mexico City is a landlocked city, essentially within the frame of a dry lake bed of the valley...
25:52...and Tokyo, once again, a port city but with the mountains that help define it.
25:58Now the truth is that the measurement is a little elusive because when people say 35 million, what are they talking about?
26:06There are six different ways in which you can legitimately measure Tokyo.
26:14There's top left, the central Tokyo of 23 special wards.
26:21The bottom right, the national capital region, which actually has a population of about 42.8 million people...
26:29...and is a big difference than the 35 million that we normally would refer to.
26:35And of course, if you were thinking of understanding any other cities, you need some standard measure of comparative analysis.
26:46I'll never forget when Jack Dangermond came to visit us and explained the importance of this project.
26:53Something that we thought we were beginning to understand...
26:58...but Jack just looked at me very simply and said those two words, comparative analysis.
27:03We have to have a standard and a means of measuring to be able to understand.
27:10So let's take New York for a second as part of this study.
27:15We're in New York, Esri has quite a few people that work closely with the city.
27:20There was a lot of data that was available for us to be able to work with, and we started to dig a little deeper.
27:26Now, most people think of New York as the greater metropolitan area. Kind of what you see here.
27:32But when you suddenly see it with this frame of 50 square miles or 80 kilometers...
27:38...you start to see and recognize that New York has clearly grown well beyond the geopolitical boundaries of New York.
27:48In fact, we commissioned the folks at MDA Federal to provide us with some concrete density maps over a 25-year period...
27:57...and we got to see a fantastic view of the ever-expanding metropolis that we call New York City.
28:05But it's clearly a lot more than, let's say, the mayor of New York has to deal with in the five boroughs that he governs.
28:15And if you were a mayor of any city, especially in today's modern world...
28:20...you have to think of governing not only the people who live in your city, but you have to start looking at the very critical other factors...
28:30...the transportation basin of the people who commute into your city...
28:34...and the population change that takes place every day in that city because of this basin.
28:39This one, indicating the commuter rails and sort of the average convenient roadways into the city.
28:45The next measure would be a governmental measure of the MSA, or the 23 cooperating counties if there were to be some major event...
28:56...in which politically the different counties would have to cooperate with each other, there's this map.
29:02Then of course there's another form of interpretation of concrete density, and you can even look at it as city lights...
29:09...which is remarkably similar to the concrete density map.
29:13And you combine all of that in a compilation, which is almost an algorithm for creating a standard measure.
29:23Maybe not unlike the Richter scale or the Fujita scale. I wanted to call it the Wurman scale.
29:29He said no, we'll call it 19, 20, 21. And we haven't really completed this...
29:34I said yes, and he said we'll call it 19, 20, 21!
29:37Yeah, no...he's very modest...
29:42The reality is that we looked at this and we realized, wow!
29:47Five different ways of measuring a city. Five different ways of looking at it.
29:52And we said, but there's a lot more to measuring a city than just the map. But there are the people.
29:59So we started to look at it in terms of population density.
30:03And again, working very closely with Hugh Keegan and his team...
30:07...we extrapolated some of the data that was available by ZIP Code...
30:11...and we extruded this map that allows us to look at New York City...
30:15...and the density of New York City and Manhattan and Brooklyn...
30:19...predominantly in Manhattan and Brooklyn, and we started to see a pattern emerge.
30:24And we compared that to a few other cities, like São Paulo, where it's not quite as concentrated in one area.
30:32Or Paris, which is even more concentrated, much smaller population, but a density and a central district of Paris that defines it.
30:43So we went back and we looked at New York, and we said well, there must be other ways in which we can examine New York.
30:50And we started to work with some students from Columbia University and working with GIS mapping and data software from Esri.
31:00We assigned a different form of mapping to this same map of New York.
31:05And we used population density by a simple dot representing 250 people.
31:10But then we were able to attach additional data to that dot, and we started to look at it, and we added education.
31:19Now, New York...only 17 percent of our population has no high school diploma.
31:27Another 49 percent, and you start to see the greater New York area light up, has a high school diploma...
31:34...and then, interestingly, only 34 percent with a higher education, and you not only see the density in New York itself...
31:44...but you start to see the suburbs, the more affluent suburbs of New York lighting up as well.
31:50Now the compilation of that starts to teach us something.
31:53And if we take a closer look at just Manhattan, we begin to see a pattern.
32:00I don't know how many of you recognize Manhattan in that rectangle which is Central Park, pretty well known.
32:08On the right hand side of Central Park, of course is Fifth Avenue, and you see this precipitous drop.
32:15The very edge of that red line is 97th Street, a hill.
32:20So once again, a very simple form of geography affects where people live...
32:27...and separates those people in the most amazing way, a very definitive way.
32:32Similarly, if you look at the lower section of Manhattan, the area that we finally call Chinatown...
32:38...but it's really the lower east side; it's a large immigrant community.
32:43New York is largely made up of an immigrant community...
32:46...but that area itself shows an area in which the inhabitants are not necessarily, this week, with a higher education than high school.
32:57But if you look at this same information by household income, you start to see the same pattern form.
33:03If you look at it by age, it becomes a little more spread apart.
33:07But if you start to then do a deeper dive and look at information by age...
33:12...if you say New York City, with it's larger immigrant community has actually a younger community...
33:19...30 percent of it is 0-19 years old, versus Tokyo only 12 percent.
33:24But Tokyo measures in with a whopping 69 percent of its population is of a working age, 20-54 year olds.
33:34And that's 69 percent of the 42 million people that we pointed out earlier. So that's an enormous productive society.
33:43And interestingly, the geriatric population is pretty much the same across all three.
33:49We go a little further to modes of transportation...
33:54...and you'll notice that 62 percent of New Yorkers use either a car or a taxi as a means of transportation.
34:02Well, that's a bit of a problem; it makes for a lot of traffic we know.
34:07Actually, our mayor was trying to figure out a way to rejig those tax dollars.
34:13Because if you look at the geopolitical map of New York...
34:17...actually that number jumps precipitously from only 35 percent of New Yorkers take...take...
34:25...use automobiles, but 38 percent versus the 16 percent prior use the subway.
34:32And this was the whole argument for congestion at taxation.
34:37But if you go further to modes of transportation and we look and we see the 63 percent in New York versus 19 percent in Shanghai...
34:46...and you look at the other modes, public transportation all being pretty much the same, but when you look at all other...
34:54...we found the fact that only 1 percent of New Yorkers take bicycles and 25 percent in Shanghai.
35:03And if any of you visit New York, you're going to see an enormous number of new bicycle lanes being put in by the city, very innovative lanes.
35:12In fact, 622 miles of bicycles lanes have been added to the city...
35:17...because they want to encourage more people to use a cleaner, more efficient, healthy form of transportation.
35:24And speaking of health, let's talk about hospitals for a second...
35:29...because we have a reasonable number of hospitals throughout all of New York City.
35:34We have an amazing concentration of the hospitals with a significant capacity, however...
35:41...are really only and mostly on the island of Manhattan, with one all the way out in Queens near the airport.
35:48We have had 16 trauma centers in New York.
35:54We actually, sadly only have 15 now because we've closed one of them.
35:59And the one that we closed, speaking of walking distances...
36:04...and these show the average time of seven minutes from the outer circle to be able to walk to a hospital.
36:11So I know you make fun of how long does it take you to get there...
36:15...but if the transportation systems aren't working, walking factors are a big issue.
36:20And if you look at the lower section of Manhattan, you'll see that St. Vincent's Hospital...
36:25...which is the one on the left side of Manhattan, is the hospital that they closed.
36:31The very hospital that many people walked up to after 911. So it's an amazing thing.
36:37So the city then has to compensate for the reality of this possibility of one less trauma center...
36:46...or even, how do you feed people to those trauma centers?
36:50I want to say one little thing about health, because Esri has a whole health division of doing health maps...
36:55...which I'm obsessed with and really interested in lately.
36:59And Bill Davenhall runs that.
37:00And he came and gave a little speech last year in San Diego about, that where you lived in your whole life...
37:07...should be part of your health record...
37:10...because it affects your life...
37:12...of where you've lived actually affects what diseases you get, and it should be part of your health record.
37:17And then we started looking at health things, and I asked the people at Esri, because we were going through the Swine Flu thing...
37:25...in fact we gave Swine Flu shots out at the conference last year by CVS.
37:29And so I got sort of obsessed with Swine Flu.
37:33And I realized that the only thing that was being published by the government of where you could get Swine Flu...
37:39...when we're all worried about standing in line and getting Swine Flu, was certain hospitals and certain governmental things...
37:45...and I realized that, if you put also in the map and you map Wal-Marts, and Walgreens, and CVSs across the country...
37:53...which they could get a map like that, literally within 15 minutes they sent me the maps, you increase...
37:59...and in every one of those stores, there's somebody who can give an inoculation.
38:02Because every pharmacist can give inoculations.
38:05You increase the network for response to an emergency.
38:09There's different ways to look at all these maps depending on what questions you have...
38:14...and wouldn't it be nice comparatively to see that around the world, of different levels of network?
38:20Sorry, I just wanted to drop that in.
38:22He's allowed to interrupt.
38:26So if you look at these, if you look at this issue in terms of emergency management...
38:32...and you strip the trauma centers away, you now can see the city actually uses designated stations for parking...
38:41...and having standby EMS services to be able to transport people to those trauma centers...
38:47...and those move based on every day's events and where they think they best need to have the support...
38:53...to be able to get people most effectively to a trauma center.
38:58Beyond that, of course you have to look at crime, because they are somewhat related to trauma.
39:04Fortunately, New York's crime rate as we probably all know has dropped precipitously, thankfully.
39:12We have quite a bit of nonviolent crime, and if you compare nonviolent with violent crime...
39:18...the city itself is able to learn a tremendous amount about the patterns that are formed in crime...
39:24...and Esri has worked very closely with New York in that regard in its police precincts.
39:30And even if you look at something like nonviolent crime and something as simple as auto theft...
39:35...you start to see a real pattern of where it occurs, different ways of interpreting it...
39:41...the relationship of auto theft to assault crime...
39:44...and you see a very interesting shift that the police department begins to understand another pattern...
39:50...of where to put the social services that might be needed to help prevent crime...
39:55...which has been a very effective part of their anticrime work that they've done in the city.
40:01And then if you take a deeper dive and you look at the Bronx, a neighborhood that's quite infamous in New York...
40:08...but if you look at the crime rates in the Bronx, they're quite problematic.
40:12The interesting thing is if you can compare them to land use, both multiple dwelling as well as private dwelling...
40:19...you start to see single family and multiple dwelling, and you start to recognize another pattern.
40:25You start to add to that the incredible amount of green space that we actually have in New York.
40:31And if you concentrate on an area like the Hunts Point industrial area, which was a hot zone for crime...
40:38...you start to add a quality of life, you start adding green streets, you start adding pocket parks...
40:44...and you start to create something where the quality of life changes.
40:49You add the bicycle lanes and the new bicycle lanes that are now being installed...
40:55...and you suddenly look at New York in a completely different way.
40:58And with 26 or 27 percent of our land in New York actually dedicated to public parks...
41:07...the quality of life and open space is a very important issue to any mayor, to any city, to any citizen living in a city.
41:16So all of those things combined were part of our initial study to prove that a concept like this would be a powerful tool.
41:24Little did we know that all of you, working in the world of GIS, and Jack and his company and his incredible team...
41:33...recognized the beginning of what we were doing and really have been supportive...
41:37...because they see the potential of being able to add much more to this.
41:42We looked at the observations of 19, 20, 21 as something that could be expressed across multiple spectrums...
41:50...creating a television series like the one you saw, Cities, which we're talking to a major global network about...
41:57...and being able to look at the multiple categories.
42:00Traveling exhibitions, print materials, and other types of conferences around the subject of cities...
42:08...all are part of our vision of 19, 20, 21.
42:13The subjects of exploration are quite obvious. It's all the huge categories of infrastructure.
42:18They're all the things that affect the way people live, and understanding the way we live is a very important part of our future.
42:26And finding that future first is part of 19, 20, 21's effort. And we see it in multiple ways.
42:35We not only saw it as a television show, we obviously see it as an online initiative...
42:41...of course it can live with data that can be supplied through some of the crowd sourcing...
42:47...that Jack demonstrated earlier this morning, and being able to use devices like the mobile reporting that we also saw...
42:55...which could contribute to this information and literally through GPS understand the metrics of a city...
43:01...and be able to look up this information in really new and innovative ways.
43:06And then, finally, to take it beyond the digital world to a physical manifestation of what Richard called the urban observatory.
43:17And again, I said what's that, Richard? And he actually had it in his book 33 from however many years ago?
43:25Some time ago.
43:26And we realized, not unlike a planetarium, not unlike an aquarium...
43:33...there really isn't a place where people can go and learn about their city, and ideally learn about other cities from around the world.
43:43So we mocked up the idea of the urban observatory.
43:47And the idea being that it would be a place where you could physically immerse yourself with this information...
43:53...and be able to have it literally change as people interacted with the information, and be able to see it in a new and different way.
44:01Have families, and adults, and people being able to come in, see it, engage themselves in this topic...
44:08...be able to learn more, and recognize that we're not a planet of countries, we're a planet of cities.
44:15And someday, to be able to have this urban observatory, where one person from Shanghai...
44:20...could say hello to somebody from Abu Dhabi...
44:23...would be an amazing dream to be able to have essentially this concept of a virtual telescope between cities.
44:32And that's pretty much 19...
Keynote Speaker Richard Saul Wurman
- Recorded: Jul 12th, 2010
- Runtime: 44:40
- Views: 55628
- Published: Aug 25th, 2010
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