00:10I wrote a paper many years ago called Design as a Verb, Design as a Noun.
00:18I'm interested in design as a verb in order to achieve design as a noun.
00:27There's always going to be a key role in design for observation, conception, intuition...
00:33...invention, historic emulation, and ideology.
00:39That's from Hilary Putnam, who's son is married to my daughter but he's Harvard's most famous philosopher.
00:47Every design has a vision, a strategy, tactics, and actions.
00:53The vision is why and what.
00:57Why are we doing this and what are we trying to do?
01:00The strategy is what and where.
01:03The tactics are where and how.
01:06And the actions are how and when.
01:10And the first...the first of these, the vision, the strategy, are probably generalizable.
01:19But the tactics and actions are unique to the place, to the time, to the people.
01:27The vision and strategy requires experience.
01:33Young people tend not to have it.
01:37The tactics and actions can be taught.
01:46And Galileo was right; many devices which work on a small scale do not work on a large scale.
01:52There is no such thing as the design method.
02:02At this scale, to this scale, is where most designers work.
02:09I know people who work in a very tiny scale.
02:12Or a large scale if you're technically correct.
02:15And I know people who work on nations and galaxies, but they're not people who call themselves designers.
02:25At this scale, the risk is very high of making a big mistake.
02:32You put the city in the wrong place, you can kill people.
02:35I'll give an example later in my talk.
02:39At this scale, the risk is low.
02:40I don't care if Mike has a baroque garden and Ron has a modernist garden.
02:46I just don't care. The risk is small; it's their problem, not my problem.
02:49But if they poison my water, it's my problem also.
02:55And that involves what you're focusing on as a designer.
02:59At this scale, come on.
03:04I hate these things.
03:07At this scale, because the risk is high, you have to focus on strategy.
03:13At this scale, because the risk is low, you can focus on details, and you spend your time that way.
03:25At this scale, the science and complexity are really important.
03:33They're less important here.
03:35But the public understanding is lower at this end and it's very high at this end.
03:40A lot of people don't need architects, don't need designers.
03:42They're perfectly happy.
03:48All designs have to go through six questions, and more than once.
03:53I've written about this many times. It’s the framework which I've used for 20 or 30 years.
03:58There are six questions.
04:00How should the landscape be described in content, space, and time?
04:04This question is answered by representation models, which are the data upon which a study, a design, a research relies.
04:12How does the landscape operate?
04:14What are the functional and structural relationships among its elements?
04:17This is answered by process models that provide information for the several assessments that are the content of the study.
04:25The third question. Is the current landscape working well?
04:29This question is answered by evaluation models...
04:31...which are dependent upon the cultural knowledge of the decision-making stakeholders.
04:36Crowding is not the same in Arizona and Hong Kong.
04:43How might the landscape be altered, changed?
04:46By what policies and actions? Where and when?
04:49This question is answered by the change models that will be tested in the research or the study or the design.
04:55By the way, design is research. Make no mistake about it.
05:02This question is answered by the change models. These are also data as assumed for the future.
05:10And they have to be in the same lexicon as your data.
05:15What differences might the changes cause?
05:17This question is answered by impact models, which are the information produced by the process models...
05:21...under changed conditions under the assumption that your design is built.
05:27And finally, how should the landscape be changed?
05:31And this question is answered by decision models which, like the evaluation models...
05:34...are dependent on the cultural knowledge of the stakeholders and responsible decision makers.
05:42In practice, those are representation, process, evaluation, change, impact decision models.
05:52And it's not linear. By no means is it linear.
05:57And eventually somebody says yes, let's do it.
05:58You start out by saying, where am I, what's going on, who's in problems, what kind of changes are being talked about?
06:05Do they think it's going to be worse, and why do they want us here in the first place?
06:12It's the first set of tasks any designer does meeting with people, meeting with clients, meeting with communities.
06:18You're trying to answer the question, why am I here?
06:21Why do they want me?
06:27The second pass is, how are we going to do what we're supposed to think we're supposed to do?
06:32And it's the design of the design process that's the second pass.
06:37And frankly, it does not begin with data and it doesn't begin with technology.
06:42Believe me, it doesn't begin with technology.
06:44It begins with understanding the decision-making process.
06:47How are they going to know if we are giving them a good design?
06:52And understanding the decision process is far more important than understanding the technology.
07:01The third pass-through is, let's do the project.
07:05Let's organize our data, do whatever we do, et cetera, et cetera, et cetera.
07:11And it's almost always the case that you're organizing information, building models, evaluation...
07:17...change (which I'm going to focus on), of comparing impacts, presenting a decision, and it's almost always no.
07:24Almost every design that I've ever heard of has feedback loops.
07:30It means you have to do some crazy things. Get better data, get better consultants, reevaluate, redesign.
07:35We make our students redesign all the time.
07:39And eventually somebody says, you're finished.
07:42Time has run out. Money has run out. We need something.
07:45But in that process, you might change scale.
07:47And the change of scale goes through the process again.
07:50And it could be change down or change up in scale.
08:01They build your design, they implement your policy. They do whatever they're going to do...
08:05...and the next generation who studies the same place is going to have your design as their input data.
08:13And time goes on.
08:17My talk is going to focus on the ways that change models get generated.
08:23But if you believe that design is just making change models, you're wrong.
08:29Because if you...excuse me, because if you haven't captured the representation process, evaluation impact, and decision models...
08:38...no yes decision will ever be made and no design will ever implemented.
08:42So it's a very fragile process.
08:45And making a design is probably the easiest part of it.
08:50I can make a design for anything. It might not be a good design.
08:55So what's the design problem?
08:58The design problem is, how do I get from time zero to time future?
09:04That's the problem.
09:08And there are two strategies.
09:10One strategy is design, or imagine, if you will, the future.
09:16Go right from now to the future.
09:19And then try to figure out, how do I get it done?
09:25And the second strategy is, design a scenario based on the present and ask, in what future might it result?
09:34Those are the two strategies.
09:37But there are five methods.
09:39There are five strategies about thinking about the strategy of developing a design.
09:45And I call them anticipatory, sequential, combinatorial, constraining, and optimizing.
09:51I'm going to go through them diagrammatically and then I'm going to give five short examples, one of each of these.
09:57And the technology is not the way to judge the design, okay?
10:01There'll be pencil and paper, some will be computer, it doesn't matter.
10:05It's the thinking process that went through them that is the subject of my talk.
10:11The anticipatory one says, we imagine the future.
10:16It's holistic. We see the whole design.
10:20And then we have to use deductive logic to see if we can get back to the present.
10:26How do I retro...how do I go from the future and make the decisions that get me back into the present?
10:35The second approach is sequential.
10:39It's directed out and it does use abductive logic, thanks to a nice paper that Tom sent me.
10:47It means that you are pretty sure that you can make a series of steps and link them into a design.
10:53And you're frequently wrong.
10:55You frequently run off and then you can change your mind and try to get it in.
10:59All designers who do abductive work save their old drawings and their old computer prose.
11:04Because they know when they've gone off, they can go back.
11:10In the second one, in the ab...in the se, I'm sorry, come on. Go back.
11:15In the sequential one, the designer is pretty sure he or she knows what they're doing.
11:22Abduction requires ego.
11:29In the third one, the combinatorial, you are not sure of what to do...
11:36...because you recognize that every one of these steps has alternatives.
11:40And so what you have is an enormous combinatorial problem.
11:43I've got nine alternative roads and three alternative shopping centers...
11:47...and five alternative hospitals and 4,000 alternative housing patterns.
11:50And the combinatorial problem is present.
11:53And you're not foolish. You understand that it's a combinatorial problem.
11:58And so you study the combinations of the most important things...
12:00...and hope that one comes out through comparative evaluation and leads you further into the design.
12:05And you can repeat that process. And it uses inductive logic.
12:12The fifth...the fourth method is one where you have so many alternatives that the point of the design is to narrow the options.
12:21Narrow the constraints. Increase the constraints.
12:25And it's basically experimental and it's basically using sensitivity analysis on the constraints.
12:32We had a demonstration of this cross-country thing where all they're doing is narrowing the constraints.
12:37That's the design process. And you do that so you can get further.
12:46The fifth one is optimizing.
12:49In this one, the decision makers do know what they want.
12:55And they have a metric for comparing the benefits and costs of the component decisions.
13:01And if you know that, you go right to the answer.
13:05But you'd better be sure you know what you're doing.
13:08And these are different.
13:09It's...that fifth one is directed, it's objective-driven, you know what the objectives are...
13:15...you can measure them, you can compare them.
13:17For example, profit is an easy one. Go right to the answer.
13:25Here are some examples.
13:28The anticipatory one.
13:34The beginning student who thinks he or she is a designer.
14:28The best explanation for how that process works, and it's very common as a process...
14:34None of us...
14:36Let me assume, half the people in this room have been trained in one form or another as designers.
14:40And I would bet half of those have woken up in a sweat in the middle of the night and seen the answer whole.
14:48Alright? You've seen the answer whole.
14:50And you come in the next morning and you say, hey, that's the answer, put it down.
14:53I've done that many times.
14:55How does that process work?
14:57The best explanation that I've ever heard and seen was presented by Christian Hammond...
15:02...who is the codirector of the Center for Intelligent Information at Northwestern University.
15:07He wrote a brilliant paper in 1990 on how chefs invent new dishes.
15:15On rule-based design.
15:17And this is how he explains the process.
15:20The most important is something called case memory...
15:23...which is stored problems and their solutions and the ways to tweak the solutions.
15:27In other words, answers, things to avoid...
15:32...and the rules by which you judge whether the answers should be developed or avoided.
15:37That's your brain or your brain augmented by Google.
15:43You get a current problem and you go to your case memory to look for similar cases.
15:48And you ask additional questions of the client or the people or whoever is telling you to do things to narrow the search.
15:55You've got a huge case memory if you're older and experienced.
15:59And you're trying to narrow the precedents.
16:01Those of us who teach with precedents.
16:03You're narrowing the precedents.
16:06And you find the closest fit and you retrieve its solution.
16:09And you look for ways to modify a solution to better fit the current problem.
16:15That's the design process.
16:17And you're proposing the solution to the user and ask the user about its success.
16:21And if it's unsuccessful, you look for ways, additional ways, to modify the solution.
16:26And maybe you go back and try another precedent.
16:29But if you're successful, you store the problem and its solution...
16:33...and the unsuccessful ones and the rules by which you were judged in your case memory.
16:37That's called learning, okay?
16:42And that's an example.
16:43I know the good and bad points of every one of these plans.
16:50I know from Sullivan and Schaefer, that conservation areas are better big than small...
16:56...one than many, compact than spread, connected than separated, and with interiors rather than linear.
17:01I know that. It's in my case memory.
17:10And now what I'm going to do...I'm sorry, go forward.
17:14I've read...I was Kevin Lynch's first doctoral student. I know his metropolitan theory form.
17:15And now what I'm going to do is I'm going to say, hey, I've got a problem.
17:18I've got a problem and I know the ring strategy, I know what's good about that.
17:22And I'm going to go to my site and I'm going to say, let's go get that design from my memory and see if it fits.
17:28And if it doesn't, I'll take Tony Garnier's linear town and see if it fits.
17:34And then I'll adapt it. And for that, sketching is pretty good.
17:38But the real issue is what's in your case memory.
17:42And especially what are the rules that allow you to adapt it.
17:47That's design for 50 percent of the designers.
17:51And the rest is details. The rest is embroidery on the basic concept.
17:58And the student thinks it's new, but I've got it in my case memory, which allows me to be the teacher and critic.
18:07The second approach is sequential.
18:09In this approach, you don't see it whole, but you see the pieces and the choices that you have to make.
18:16And you believe that you can link them in a design.
18:21This is a 35-year-old project.
18:23It's the first time that I caused students...maybe invented, a design Delphi method.
18:31This is Bermuda. That's the garbage dump.
18:35The prime minister, who is the first black man to be elected prime minister, in about '75, 1975, grew up next to the dump.
18:44That's the dump.
18:46That's the floodplain that has to accommodate a hundred-year flood.
18:49And that's the central park, and that's the governor general's house...
18:53...the residence of the queen's representative, also looking over the dump.
18:57And he ran on the promise of Close the Dump.
19:00That was his campaign, and he got elected.
19:03I took my graduate students to there and we talked to the people.
19:07The first time that's ever happened in Bermuda.
19:11And every night I made them do a diagram of every idea that they got...
19:16...and every idea that they had themselves, to scale.
19:19Tiny little diagrams, 8-1/2 by 11, on plastic.
19:24And by the time we were done, we decided that there were five things that every design had to have.
19:31It had to be on stable soils.
19:34It had to have three and a half million cubic feet of garbage placed on it...
19:38...before the dump could be closed while they built an incinerator.
19:42So you were grading with a dump.
19:44It had to protect the flood, et cetera.
19:47And we had about 100 diagrams.
19:49And I used a Delphi method to ask them, which issues are most important?
19:55And they ended up with socioeconomic, open space, the marsh, on-site circulation, development around it, et cetera.
20:02In other words, this is more important that this, than this, than this, than this.
20:05And then I asked them, of the diagrams that they got from the people...
20:09...or that they made themselves, which were the most likely to succeed?
20:13And these are more likely to succeed than those...this is not a good machine.
20:21In other words, that diagram is the flexible, the most important diagram of the most important policy to put in your design.
20:29And then I ran a lottery.
20:31And the student who won the lottery, Ron over here, had his first choice of any five or six diagrams for his design.
20:38And being smart, he picks this, this, this, this, and this obviously.
20:42And then Karen here, she can do whatever she wants except if it's already been picked.
20:48And Karen says, I'm going to do this one and then these two and then maybe that one.
20:52And I had fifteen students.
20:55And each one had to do a design in four weeks to the same graphic representation, alright?
21:01So these are all different designs because they have different diagrams.
21:04And the students are smart and they're abductively designing.
21:07And in four weeks, we had fifteen of these things and they were all boxed.
21:12And they were all flown with four students to Bermuda.
21:15And every design was put on the table and the committee that was in charge of the dump evaluated them.
21:21And they said no to twelve of the designs and three to carry forward.
21:26So the twelve students whose projects were stopped, their work stopped.
21:30And they had to join the students whose work went forward.
21:33And there were some very famous architects whose work got stopped.
21:38So these were the three finalists.
21:41Team A which, as you see, has roads going right through it.
21:44Team B, famous landscape architect from Minnesota.
21:48A flat design. Flat, on an unstable soil, by the way, based on garbage.
21:54And the third one, no road.
21:56These are different.
21:58And these were presented to 10,000 people in five meetings.
22:02That's a tenth of the population of Bermuda, and that's the prime minister and his wife.
22:08And the prime minister decided to have a referendum, not by iPhone but on paper, alright?
22:16And this design won. This design won.
22:20And two of my students decided to marry and stay.
22:23And they were given rent-free a house for one month...for a year, and made a design.
22:28And that design is now graded out because it took 20 years to stabilize the soil.
22:32And what was the design? That was the design.
22:38Is it chance? I don't know.
22:40But it's been a robust method. It is abductive logic, okay?
22:47The third approach is combinatorial.
22:50In this approach, you know that you've got very, very important decisions.
22:51And if the designer makes the wrong move in the beginning, that's the end of the story.
22:55There's a parido distribution of decisions.
22:57If they make a wrong move just before the end, it's not exactly the end of the story.
22:59A design might have 20 to 30 decisions.
23:02Maybe 20 to 40 decisions that a person has to make before they let go and let somebody else operate in another scale.
23:09And there is a parido distribution.
23:11Some things are more important than other things.
23:15The highway really is more important than what species of tree you plant. Mostly.
23:22So what's really the technique here is to study the combinations, and not to many, of the top three or so factors.
23:32And it's really important to try to capture the major generating assumptions and then let go and not worry about it too much.
23:41Don't try to make a finished design. But do make sure that you're on the right track.
23:48This is the designer.
24:04This is a workshop that Christina Von Haren, who spoke yesterday, and Juan Carlos, Tess, and I worked on.
24:13This was a workshop looking at the future of Cagliari, the capital city of Sardinia.
24:19And the students in this, we had basically a week. I had them for 24 hours.
24:26Basically, the students were engineers, architects, urban designers, landscape architects...
24:32...half Italian, Moroccan, half German, God knows from where, in English.
24:40Cagliari is a city of about 400,000, it's sprawling, it's a Roman city.
24:46The data don't exist. This is the land use data. That's their GIS for land use.
24:54We designed based on 10 evaluation models, habitat, visual, cultural, energy, transport, hydrology.
25:05Nothing obscure about that.
25:08I had the...we had the students, in half a day, evaluate each of these systems in a very simple map.
25:16All graphically, no computers at all.
25:18This was last year.
25:20We said, if you draw it in red it’s a problem.
25:22If you draw it in green it's something you want to protect.
25:24Very, very simple. Don't waste time, go right to it.
25:30And you have to propose projects that will help you.
25:34So these diagrams, for example, are color-coded as project alternatives.
25:40One, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, nine, ten...for improving habitat.
25:45These are potential projects for importing transport.
25:47And there were 150 projects, color-coded for different sectors of growing a metropolitan area.
25:55This is on day one.
25:58Eight hours, alright?
26:04Then we divided it into six stakeholder groups.
26:07Conservationists, developers, regional planners, an energy foundation...
26:11...tourism development, and local government that wants to be reelected.
26:15And we told the students they could take no more than 20 projects.
26:21The best 20 projects that would help them for their client.
26:24And so they go to the table, they borrow the plastic, they put it on an overhead projector on a light table...
26:30...and they end up...come on. And they end up with a design.
26:36And we're slowly taking the diagrams that are more frequent and putting them into the computer.
26:41Juan Carlos organized that.
26:44And we went through a stage, this is, these are the teams, those are their designs, they are sharing plastic.
26:52So if this was all digital, and we've done it all digital many times, you basically share a file of a diagram of a project.
27:02But between these stages, we evaluated them.
27:06By asking the students who did the first analysis to compare every design.
27:12And so we made a second design and then a digital version because we had started to digitize...not digitize it, wrong word...
27:24...draw the projects that were the most common.
27:29And then we had a presentation to the planners, to the faculty, to the...lots of people.
27:35And each design was presented as a series of projects that would result in a 20-year future for the area.
27:45What should the hydrology government do, what should the transport people do, what the...like government is organized.
27:52That's one design, that's a second design.
27:54They're different. Believe me, they're different.
27:57And then we asked the planners, this is the chief regional planner and the chief city planner, which is the best design?
28:04And they didn't agree.
28:06And they started talking to each other and the Italian students got to talking, everybody started yelling at each other.
28:11It was very, very interesting.
28:13And then I asked...I asked a slightly different question.
28:16I said, which projects, not which plan is best, but which projects have legs?
28:22Which ones recur again and again and again?
28:26So we did a frequency distribution, because we knew.
28:30We had a frequency distribution of which projects were used the most by the most plans.
28:35And I asked Juan Carlos, who's sitting there, kick them up on the computer in real time.
28:41And there it is.
28:42That's plan number seven.
28:43And all of a sudden, the people who made decisions for the city said yeah, that's not a bad plan.
28:49Not a bad plan at all.
28:51It has projects. Conserve the wetlands, protect the open water areas, increase biomass energy...
28:57...increase a network of public transit around the wetlands, connect the habitats...
29:02...and expand the city along the major roads, but at lower density because that's what people really want.
29:10And that's today, and that's 20 years from now.
29:19The fourth method is constraining.
29:22Here we're dealing with a client who has some idea of what they want but really doesn't.
29:31This is the largest industrial zone in Italy.
29:3625,000 people work here.
29:39Right here, off my photo...off this slide, is the city of Padua.
29:44And in the 1960s, in the 1960s, the politics of the Venetto was basically a war between...
29:54...not insulting anybody here, I hope...between a right-wing Catholic government and the communists.
30:01And the workers were communists mainly.
30:04And so they decided...yeah, well...they decided to move the place out, move the workers out.
30:11And they created a park that's a no-man's land.
30:13It's basically drug people and prostitutes...a problem.
30:18So we...and they had to green this area.
30:22So we had the students go out there, they made diagrams.
30:24This time, Juan Carlos organized something that was very clever.
30:28The diagrams were all on a spreadsheet.
30:31So a student could go and ask, which 20 projects would best allow connecting green spaces?
30:36Which one would give an identify of a central park?
30:38And we made exercises by simply calling up a spreadsheet and overlaying the diagrams.
30:43In other words, the spreadsheet is the tool. The diagrams are the tools.
30:47The design comes out of the selection of the elements.
30:51It's not pencil and paper, it's not sketch-up.
30:54We had 15 designs.
30:55They were evaluated, and the outcome of the evaluation was the diagrams that they wanted to see going forward.
31:03We made plans from those groups.
31:06The plans were very sophisticated, staged, and with projects of all kinds.
31:12We brought them to Italy.
31:14Thousands of people saw them in the bank in the main street, on the Via Cora.
31:19Then we had a quiet meeting with the students, the director of the park, the industry, and the mayor.
31:25And the mayor asked me, which is the best design? And I said, none of these.
31:29I said, I think this, this, this, this, this.
31:32And then we had all those things up on a computer.
31:34And we said well, let's see what that looks like as a design.
31:36Bop, bop, bop, bop, bop...and we made a design live, in real time.
31:41And that design is on the Internet as the industry's commitment for their 50th anniversary to the city.
31:50And they are implementing it in their own way, making changes.
31:54So the exercise was to get them to figure out what they really wanted by narrowing their options.
32:02The last one is optimizing.
32:06This is LaPaz, it's also on the Internet, the capital city of Baja, California...a sewer in Mexico.
32:12A large group of people, terrible data, a whole set of integrated models.
32:17A computer program is going to make the design as an optimizing program.
32:21The scenarios were based on three alternative demographic and economic projections...
32:26...three alternative public policy sets, and two alternative levels of public finance.
32:33There was a lot of sensitivity analysis.
32:35We knew how much development we wanted.
32:37We knew where it wanted to go on economically-driven attractiveness models...
32:43...because Rob Farris, our economist, interviewed developers.
32:48There were different restrictions on land use as scenarios.
32:51There was an algorithm for allocation...
32:54...a third-generation derivative of Britton Harris' work from the 1960s that Mike Flaxman organized.
33:01And we started to do alternative designs.
33:03The computer was presenting them out. We had 16 of them.
33:08The design was the result of a process driven by economics.
33:13And a computer did the design.
33:16We did it, but the computer did the drawing.
33:20And we compared it with some very complicated models.
33:24Saline intrusion, groundwater change on different alternatives, which areas would get ugly...
33:30...how much gross regional product would there be, how much per-capita income would be.
33:35And then we had to make a decision.
33:37And here's the issue of decision making under optimization.
33:40Every one of these designs was an optimum, but based on different criteria and assumptions, every one of them.
33:46We had 10 optimum solutions.
33:49So we had a public meeting.
33:51And the governor says...hundreds of people.
33:54The governor says, I believe that economic performance is equal to environmental performance.
34:07Two indices, a spreadsheet, equal means you're on this axis.
34:12And design number 10 is the one that is equal.
34:14But nine has more economic return.
34:19And two is better environmentally.
34:24So what's the answer?
34:26The answer is, we're not really sure that this is the best answer because we don't trust the governor.
34:34But we know the answer is somewhere in this triangle.
34:38And we know that it's not any of the policies here.
34:43And in a sense, the design is not what to do, but the design is what not to do.
34:50Which, in a governmental environment, is probably even more valuable as the result of a design process.
34:58And that's the best design.
34:59But this is the thing that made the greatest impact. It’s the index of developability.
35:05When you're not sure of what's going to happen.
35:07And we're not sure of what's going to happen.
35:10And this is the index of environmental quality.
35:12You saw one version of this yesterday, but they picked the wrong colors.
35:17Because when you intersect this, the map says if it's green it means the conservationists want it but the developers don't.
35:26So don't do anything.
35:28If it's red, it means the developers want it but the conservationists don't.
35:34So let it go to development if it wants to.
35:36The real issue is brown.
35:38And this is a piece of land that was stolen by the president of Mexico for private use in the 1950s.
35:44And his grandson wants to build a billion dollar resort.
35:48And because of this map, a public outcry came...
35:53...and the mayor took the first 50 meters of coastline...coastline away as public land.
36:02And he's won in the Supreme Court.
36:05So this is now protected land.
36:07I'm finished. I am finished.
36:10This is the single greatest, positive result of any study I've ever done based on the worst data.
36:18And the whole study was done in four months.
36:22So how might the landscape be changed?
36:25This way, that way, that way, that way, or that way.
36:27Those are design processes.
36:29My last word. Designing something is an art.
36:35It requires judgment.
36:37It is not a science, although it depends on science.
36:41There are no perfect formulae, but there are methods.
36:45There is no universal toolkit, but there are tools.
36:48And you cannot copy an example, but you can gain experience. Thank you.
Ways of Designing
Carl Steinitz, Research Professor, Graduate School of Design, Harvard University, presents “Ways of Designing” at the 2010 GeoDesign Summit.
- Recorded: Jan 5th, 2010
- Runtime: 36:57
- Views: 67997
- Published: Aug 25th, 2010
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