Creating an Effective GIS Technology Strategy

Andrew Sakowicz and Andrew Hendrickson discuss how to plan for and incorporate an enterprise GIS into your existing business system.

Sep 21st, 2011

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00:01So the title here, Creating an Effective GIS Technology Strategy...

00:04...we're going to talk about process, you know, strategy, planning.

00:09We're also going to talk a lot about technology.

00:11So that's what I mean about having a wild ride; we're going to kind of go up and down a little bit.

00:16And the way we're going to do it is first we're going to talk about characterizing GIS in the business enterprise.

00:21And we're going to talk about the ArcGIS architectural vision, okay, and ultimately talk about some patterns.

00:30Now you guys know when you buy a book sometimes and you get some software, used to, or you get a download?

00:36Well, a download comes with this particular talk today, so we're going to actually show some software and some tools that we use...

00:42...and show you how to get them immediately.

00:44So we'll bring sort of the practice itself to reality and show you how to use it because we've got some tools to show you.

00:52We're going to talk about a discovery approach that we've developed here and that we utilize with our staff...

00:58...when we work with you in the field.

01:00So to digress a little bit, my name is Andy Hendrickson. I work on our patterns and practices team, and I'm a solution architect.

01:07I'm going to be assisted today by Andrew Sakowicz over here, and I will let him introduce himself.

01:12Actually, you don't have a mic, do you?

01:14That's okay. My name is Andrew Sakowicz; I work in Professional Services in Implementation Services Group...

01:21...and we do lots of things, including solution architectures, and we work very closely with Andy Hendrickson. Happy to be here.

01:30Thanks. So then at the end, we will have some time for some questions, a Q&A section...session.

01:36And kind of let you guys guide that section of the talk as well.

01:40We can take it in a number of different directions; we'll see how this goes.

01:44So first I want to characterize what we think of when we think of the business enterprise.

01:48So when we're talking about GIS in business, right, where we're talking about the use of geospatial technologies...

01:56...we're really talking about a way to characterize it within that business enterprise.

02:01So I'm talking about functional departments.

02:03I'm talking about people and systems within an organization, not necessarily technology, right?

02:09Technology's a part of it, but successful implementations within a business enterprise have a free flow of information.

02:16Now, "free flow of information." Hmm. That denotes ease of access. In part, yeah.

02:23It also denotes ease of access through the designs that you are going to come up with and implement.

02:28So talk a little bit about that today as well.

02:31When I say "enterprise" or "business enterprise," I'm not really creating a proxy for size, okay.

02:37To me, a business enterprise can be a relatively small deployment or it can be relatively large, okay?

02:44So just put that issue right to sleep.

02:47So most benefits occur when your GIS is deeply, deeply engrained into business operations...

02:53...or into your organizational business itself.

02:57Now, to get your minds flowing early in the morning today, what do...you guys see a pretty picture here, right?

03:06Does this look pretty? Just nod some heads. This is a pretty picture of a town, I believe in New Zealand.

03:11But what do you see? You see different things, right? Buildings, you know.

03:18Sometimes I call it the curse that I have. When I see it, I see oodles of challenges and oodles of places where GIS can help.

03:28So I wanted to show this because I think that when you’re looking at your business enterprise...

03:35...and you're thinking about your strategy, you need to sometimes step back and look at the big picture.

03:40Now we could just focus on single things like inventory or facilities management, you know...

03:46...e-government, electric, gas utility things, but I like to step back and take a holistic look.

03:51And in my work with many of you and in the work that we’ll do together in the future...

03:55...that’s something that we’ll try to bring to you as well.

03:58So stepping back and saying, well, what are we actually doing, okay...

04:02...and how would this potentially affect other operating business units that touch the technology or touch the GIS? Okay?

04:11So a couple of viewpoints.

04:16So what is GIS in the business enterprise? When I say "viewpoints," I literally mean that.

04:21So I see this projector, right, but I see it differently than some of you do throughout the room. But it's still a projector.

04:27So the viewpoints that I want to give you and have you think about as we're talking today are, first, architectural.

04:32So what is the workflow-based architecture where the geographic data and services are shared across an organization. Right?

04:41So facilities management may involve things or pieces of data that are coming from multiple departments...

04:47...coming from different areas, but they're touching the different organizations.

04:50So people feel ownership of the data at different points in a workflow, okay?

04:56Just because the data is spatially enabled and sitting in a geodatabase doesn't necessarily mean the GIS department owns that data.

05:02Okay. So there's an architectural component to the data value streams.

05:07The organizational context. I just kind of traversed that a little bit, you know.

05:08So there's an organizational component to what we have to think about in terms of strategy.

05:11So where would the enterprise-wide use of those capabilities that are governed through IT exist? What are the boundaries?

05:23Infrastructural, yeah. GIS infrastructure is used to enable existing business systems and data and services.

05:30Now a lot of times, things start here. They start before we actually know what we're doing. We start with technology.

05:39So we've seen tremendous success where the GIS is managed as a platform rather than an application, okay.

05:47This is also another important bullet, one important enough that I wanted to make sure that I included it there...

05:52...because I do see difficulties in building strategy when you're trying to build something and looking at it as an application...

06:00...especially regarding GIS.

06:02Now, things have grown throughout the years organically, right? The technology has changed.

06:07And I do believe there was a time where GIS was more of an application than it was a platform...

06:13...and that legacy sort of mind-set persists, right?

06:19Okay. So tactical growth over time. So we need to think about this; we need to think about growing capabilities, alright.

06:30In a way, it's very difficult to just buy something for the enterprise in a box.

06:35You grow capabilities when you have a platform.

06:38Right? And then you can build solutions and you can build those boxes as they fall on top of that platform, okay.

06:45So broad access for your enterprise to the geographic data and processing.

06:49I think this is important, okay, because you're going to tactically do this throughout time; in a sense, grow the capabilities.

06:59A common infrastructure to build and deploy.

07:01It doesn't all have to sit in one place, though, right?

07:04Heard a lot of things yesterday about cloud, a lot of things about enterprise, okay.

07:09But it should be a common infrastructure, meaning it should be...these parts should be able to communicate with one another.

07:16So that's part and parcel of the plan as well.

07:19Alright, so economies of scale through organizational, you know, deployment--of course.

07:24Reusability is another thing that we're going to talk a lot about today, so creating things once and using them many times.

07:31By nature--some of you may have experienced this in your career--GIS becomes integration technology, doesn't it?

07:41It becomes, dare I say, a linchpin, and oftentimes that puts you or, you know...

07:48...the owner of this particular business system, as the linchpin.

07:52So you're the one that's having to actually create the communication between organizations, right?

07:58Some heads are starting to go like this now. Yeah. That's what I mean here, and that's okay; that's a good thing.

08:04So we need to leverage the GIS to be an integration technology, and it's okay to be one if we've set things up correctly.

08:12I love getting calls at 2 a.m., don't you? No, I don't.

08:16So obtaining business sponsors and stakeholders. This may sound natural, this may sound obvious...

08:22...but this is also another and very important part of your strategy. We'll talk about that as well.

08:28So how do we do this? It requires a plan. I'll show you how I think of planning and doing that today.

08:37And actually, you should listen to me today, and then you should not listen to me.

08:41You should listen to some of the things I say and then realize that you can take an approach...

08:45...and adapt it to your particular business, right?

08:49So I don't want to make you think that there's a rigid approach, but there should be an approach.

08:55So adapting an approach for your business organization I think is very important. I do like talking...no.

09:02I do like meeting with folks, so I think promoting the notion of repeatable events, I'll call them...

09:11...for getting your different stakeholders and internal sponsors together is very important.

09:17And I don't think that I like having meetings every week; that's not what I mean...

09:21...but maybe a quarterly review of what you're doing regarding your strategy, something like this.

09:26So we're...creating repeatable artifacts is important. But not a lot of artifacts, right?

09:35Meaningful ones, things that you can bring throughout each cycle of building your strategy...

09:41...and implementing your strategy, should exist or persist.

09:45I like to promote the notion of doing assessments, so drawing a line in the sand. I do this...

09:53Some of you that have worked with me are used to me doing stuff like that.

09:56But, you know, create a baseline; that first bullet point there.

09:59There needs to be a line in the sand, so when you begin something, you have to have an end point...

10:05...or you're looking toward an end point, okay?

10:08So without that initial assessment of what exists, it's very hard to understand where you want to go...

10:16...or to at least be able to get it out of your head to other folks who oftentimes have to fund it, right? Okay.

10:25So there's a need for discovery, even within your long-standing organizations or places that you've persisted...

10:33...worked, worked with for a long time. There's a tremendous need for doing this.

10:41And this is what I meant about having it be repeatable, so now what? So how do we do this?

10:46Because the GIS serves multiple, multiple segments, the first of which I'll talk about...

10:53...drew down here on your bottom left, and it says "domain." Okay?

10:57Now there's a lot of words around here, and I'll get to what I mean by some of these words...

11:01...but this is a segment so a domain type user or, in the GIS world, an analyst type user. This is a particular type of user.

11:09Kind of where GIS started many, many moons ago, right? And then I see this second segment, the enterprise or the business.

11:20Now I'm starting to talk about process a little bit. We're digging in a little bit here.

11:25So understand where you are. Where you are? There's a lot of you in the back of the room.

11:32There's some seats up here if you want to come up.

11:35Understanding where you are, what do I mean there? Understand where you are within the business enterprise, I guess.

11:42So not just in terms of an org. chart, although org. charts are important...

11:46...but sometimes org. charts don't really denote the level of maturity of...

11:52...organizations that are supporting applications like...that are built on your GIS platform, okay?

11:59Understand where you're going and how it relates to the business, okay. That's important as well.

12:05Barriers? You know, what are your barriers? Are budgets a barrier for some of you? Slight show of hands.

12:13Yeah. That's actually a lot, yeah.

12:16Adapting to your budget life cycle is an important notion, right? Or adapting to the business's budget life cycle.

12:23So I think your strategy should in part overlay with things like your budget strategy and budget plans.

12:31And developing the strategy itself is important, so let's hang on to this notion of segmentation for a minute.

12:40Now segmentation is a word some people...

12:45Some of my colleagues roll their eyes at me sometimes when I say "segmentation," 'cause it sounds very marketing-ish...

12:51...but to me it also involves technology.

12:54And I think that regarding the GIS platform, I think realistically looking at segments and who your customers are...

13:03...is extremely important [audio skips] enterprise.

13:05Or enterprise in terms of implementation, but it's a style of implementation.

13:10So in a way, folks began in the domain creating data, right? Doing things, doing analysis...

13:16...and then as the technology sort of grew into the enterprise...

13:20...more folks could connect to that same data that this domain user was creating.

13:25Are we good so far with this one? Kind of sounds like how GIS evolved, right? Absolutely. They're distinct.

13:33They're distinct, and how folks within a business enterprise utilize the technology is distinct as well, okay?

13:40Oftentimes, a lower-level user, a higher-level user, meaning depth and breadth of the technology that they're using...

13:47...or maybe depth and breadth of knowledge of that particular technology that they're using.

13:51This thing that just drew up here, web/cloud, this is a new segment, okay?

13:58This is one that is creating, I think, in many ways, confusion, okay, but at the same time, it's very exciting...

14:05...because we have a new segment with which is beginning to touch the GIS itself.

14:11Again, leveraging the same information that oftentimes was created by the domain...

14:17...made available to the business enterprise, and whoo! That's what I mean--there's a new segment here.

14:21Where you have this sort of long tail of users who can do geo things...

14:25...but don't necessarily need to know anything about this complicated thing here or this complicated thing here. Fair enough?

14:34Heard a lot yesterday from Jack about ArcGIS Online, right?

14:37So I've even got listed up here this notion of online capabilities, cloud-based capabilities.

14:44To me, this is important for you as well, because your strategy needs to reflect this.

14:52Lots of users, not as many as this, not as many as this. It's a relative scale, in my opinion.

14:59And then for your solutions and things that you're building, you need to address these at a minimum, these types of users.

15:07Now, there's a lot of semantics that I'm using here too, my words, alright?

15:11Maybe this is the GIS office; maybe this is IT, right; maybe this is the public at large, right, if you're in state and local.

15:21Even in a commercial operation, right? Knowledge worker, right? Day-to-day business user. Customer base.

15:32You see, you have this GIS now that's traversing all of these segments, and it's traversing them very well.

15:42Now I also think that segmentation is so important because you want to design your system differently...

15:50...depending upon what that particular segment needs.

15:54So this in a way becomes sort of a three-step, you know, taxonomy, initial taxonomy of your user base.

16:08So now, part of your strategy should be to formalize some sort of process.

16:17And this is where I mentioned earlier, you need to adapt it to yourself and to your organization, right?

16:24This is how we're looking at things.

16:26We're first, there's three steps here, and number one, aligning with the platform vision, is extremely important.

16:36Now, with the ArcGIS platform vision, I'll be very explicit about that.

16:41Because it's a platform and because you have these different segments...

16:43...and all these different types of uses that could be occurring on top of it...

16:47...that's where we need to have a direct alignment with the segmentation and then the platform vision itself...

16:52...because we want to be able to scale your system differently depending upon what that segment is doing. Okay?

17:00So I'm going to stay on this notion for a second and talk specifically about how to align with the ArcGIS platform...

17:09...from an architectural perspective, with all those viewpoints that I've already mentioned.

17:18So this has evolved a little bit since last year, as this session has evolved a little bit.

17:23But ultimately the message remains the same--we've learned from you throughout the years.

17:28We've learned from our customers; we've listened to our customers about how you guys are using the ArcGIS platform...

17:34...how you're using the technology.

17:36And we have figured out and put some names on different patterns or styles of use. Okay.

17:46Again, not necessarily denoting a large or a small organization, okay?

17:50So in some cases, this could be a small organization where we've seen this, in some cases a tremendously large one.

17:55But this first one to your left is called "data management." It is a specific pattern of use.

18:04It is a way that you utilize the technology to solve real-world business problems, and in this particular case, data management...

18:11...you're taking information--data--and putting it into somewhere, right, and making it available for other folks to use.

18:19Does that sound like we're doing something that becomes reusable? Yeah, reusability is a notion here.

18:25Which is why that first domain that I talked about is distinct from the second segment, the enterprise...

18:32...because it's much easier to get information spread throughout your organization with an enterprise-style approach...

18:38...as opposed to a domain approach. Okay?

18:42So here this does align with a particular piece of technology that some of you are using, the geodatabase.

18:47Right? Yes? File form structures or RDBMS layers? Yes? Lots of heads? Okay.

18:53Okay, I'll come back to more of the architectural component in a second.

18:58The second pattern, going from left to right, is planning and analysis.

19:02And again remember, I always say, semantics. These are my words; this can be something else.

19:07I've been in some shops where we call this business intelligence...

19:09...but it's ultimately the way that you're taking data out of this first pattern of use...

19:15...and doing something with it and then making it available. Right?

19:18So you're taking data and transforming it into actionable information.

19:24Or you're using geoprocessing, right? You're doing analysis, you're doing geoanalysis, spatial analysis.

19:32Oftentimes, the bread and butter of the GIS, right? A real distinction for GIS technology.

19:39This third pattern is this mobile pattern, is expanding by the day, I think, but there's subpatterns to this one.

19:46But from its highest, most...from the top level that I can think of, the best way to think about this for today...

19:51...is getting information into and out of the field.

19:55Alright. So I'm looking at stuff that's being stored or persisted back within my business enterprise, possibly...

20:03Not possibly. ...put there by a domain user, an expert, and I'm able to do things with it.

20:08Now I might be a read-only type user, or I might actually be doing things where I'm altering the data...

20:13...changing the data, adding data, but it's a specific pattern of use.

20:17The fourth one up here says "operational awareness." So the dissemination of this information when and where I need it.

20:24Putting it out. I think the easiest way to think of this one is simply visualization or visualizing it.

20:32It doesn't necessarily just denote, say, creating a cached map service; that's not...although that might be part of it.

20:37But it could be dynamic data as well, or could be stuff rendered client side, it could be stuff cached, right?

20:44But it is a pattern of use that is distinct from the other three.

20:49This last one, "constituent engagement." I oftentimes trip over saying that one, or crowdsourcing, right...

20:55...volunteered geographic information, so here we have the ability for getting feedback on the information that we've stored...

21:03...persisted, transformed in some kind of meaningful way, gotten out to the field or made into some sort of visual component, right?

21:10So now we're able to get information from the public maybe.

21:13The public might be your public constituents...

21:16...but it could also be an internal work force, quite honestly, giving you feedback about the information in real time.

21:24So these five patterns, you guys do it today, right?

21:29It sounds like it aligns with some of your business processes, I'm sure, but it needs to align with the architecture as well.

21:38Because depending upon what you're doing with the platform, the technology performs differently, right?

21:46I'm saying things that you already know; I'm just putting words and terms onto it.

21:50So this really is a taxonomy. From an architect's perspective, it is a taxonomy.

21:57If you have or work with enterprise architects within your organization, this is that kind of language for them.

22:05It's a very interesting way for them to look at the GIS and bringing it out of sort of that domain viewpoint into their world.

22:15Because what's happening is, and I'm seeing it happen more and more, is that GIS is starting to become a platform...

22:22...and looked upon as a platform, and it's becoming standardized at the architectural board level.

22:28So you'll get things like the REST API for ArcGIS, which has been released as an open standard, right, can oftentimes...

22:36...can actually be brought in by an architectural board and made to be the standard for communicating between geodatabases, plural.

22:46This is where we start having that conversation.

22:48So some folks have--I've been laughed at a couple times in my life.

22:53Once was when I was with some folks and I asked them if this looks like an architecture diagram...

22:58...and they're like, "Ho-ho! No!"

23:01It's "markitecture," Andy.

23:03No, it really is the beginning of your architectural diagram, because at a very minimum, and I won't beleaguer this one too much...

23:11...but at a minimum, we want to have discrete computing environments, depending upon what we're doing, okay?

23:18Whereas oftentimes--and we love to travel the world; Andrew and I love to travel the world.

23:23But we don't want to travel the world because of things not performing well...

23:28...or things breaking and not supporting the operations that you guys are supporting, right?

23:33So creating distinct compute environments based upon this type of taxonomy works.

23:39And I'm not standing up here telling you you have to have a minimum of five servers to do something with GIS, right...

23:44...or five compute environments, because virtualization's kind of interesting now.

23:49We can do things with virtualization, whether it be private, public, with the cloud and virtualization that are very interesting.

23:56But I am saying that if you have...if you're supporting business operations where you have people editing data, right...

24:02...this first pattern of use, creating data, editing it, creating this extremely important information...

24:09...and then you have a web map, okay, which is an operating picture or showing operational awareness for the general public...

24:17...there tends to be a few more zeros on the amount of users over here, right?

24:21And if this scales out or jumps out and it just takes down your environment...

24:24...what happens to your editors that are creating real data?

24:29Right? So we should think about probably keeping these things discrete. Does that make sense? Yeah?

24:34So it starts with architecture, it starts with your strategy.

24:37There's a couple deployment options listed here on the bottom where we have typically talked about desktops and servers and online.

24:45Let me be very clear and say that the desktop world or the enterprise world is enterprise-style software.

24:51It's software you deploy on your hardware, right? You own the licenses for it, perpetual licensing, I guess.

24:59Then there's this newer paradigm of the web/cloud, which is a different way of licensing things.

25:05It's a different way of doing things. It's more of a consumption type model, right?

25:11Then the device-pervasive notion, where we're actually creating technology specific for devices...

25:17...like Android or Apple iOS, Win Phone, whatever else we need to do in the future.

25:23But ultimately, I mentioned licensing, but these are deployment options as well--should be part of your strategy.

25:35Okay. You can't read this, but I'll just tell you what it says.

25:41What I'm trying to promote here is communication.

25:44So you need to communicate with the business about what it is you want to do.

25:48This is simply--it's kind of academic in a way...

25:51...but it's a summary with, you know, stated goals, stated deliverables, and a stated timeline.

25:56So when you're building your strategy and you're writing it out, I think you should tell the business what your strategy is...

26:01...and actually ask them if it makes sense, okay?

26:05Some difficulties that I've seen some of my clients have is that they get to a certain point...

26:11...and the business didn't know what they were doing.

26:14Right? Or the business didn't know what they were plans were and they don't meet or match, okay?

26:20So I think it's extremely valuable to tell them, to show schedules as well when you conduct formal sessions, right?

26:27Be very clear about what those sessions are.

26:29This is a sample agenda, right? Stated purpose. Stated expectations for who the audience should be. Stated roles.

26:40And, you know, that's going to vary by organization as well, but ultimately the concept here is what I'm promoting.

26:49Ask relevant questions, and by the way, we are happy to assist, right...

26:55...with what some of this stuff may be regarding your geospatial platform. But relevant questions.

27:02One of the most relevant questions I like to ask simply is, How are you measured?

27:11Now let me pause for a second and say that I do get to do a lot of planning work with you guys.

27:18I do get to come out as you're developing strategies, but I also have to go in sometimes and work on fires...

27:24...putting fires out, because there's problems that exist with the technology.

27:28And everything I'm talking about so far this morning, I use the same process for reverse engineering things...

27:34...and figuring out what's going on as I do for building a brand-new strategy.

27:38Just wanted to kind of throw that out there, because asking the relevant questions I think is very important.

27:43So although sometimes you need to dive right into technology, right? Log in, figure out what's going on...

27:49...it's also really, really nice to know what the measurables are, you know.

27:56And I don't necessarily mean just uptime on a server, right?

28:00What are the KPIs, or key performance indicators for the organization that has built this particular solution on the geospatial platform?

28:10So here's some sample questions that we use, and they align with an architectural approach...

28:18...which, as we talk more and more this morning, I'll be very overt...

28:21...and tell you that we align our approach with something called TOGAF.

28:24It's an enterprise architectural framework. Very exciting reading.

28:30Anyway, we've used this, and these questions that we have align with this architectural approach, and we'll get into that.

28:37But it's here is the first time, this morning, where I introduce this concept of business architecture...

28:43...and then information architecture and then technology architecture.

28:46These are distinct as well, okay?

28:53Now let's talk about capability, growth, and time with your approach and the building of your strategy.

29:01Now, there's a lot of information on this slide; I'll describe this to you.

29:06There's a timeline cutting through the middle that says Present, Future; it's a relative scale, okay.

29:13And I'm going to speak to this arch from left to right.

29:18And what it's showing here is at the bottom is what I mentioned earlier.

29:21There's a step, there's a first step that you take where you draw the line in the sand...

29:25...and you have to document what the as-is state is.

29:28As-is state is, yes. What the current state is; maybe that's a better way of putting it.

29:33But what exactly is there? What are you supporting? What are you running?

29:38Now, you have a notion at this point, you know you're doing something or else you wouldn't be building a strategy...

29:43...so you want to come up with some sort of gap analysis between what exists, right, and where you need to go.

29:50Now, we can do that right up front, honestly, 'cause as soon as you come up with that as-is state...

29:55...you're already figuring out, oh, yeah, you're right. This particular application is expected to be available 24 x 7...

30:04...but I only have one SDE DBA. Does that match? No, no, no. Things are off there, right?

30:10So your application is running 24/7, but you only have one SDE DBA, or maybe I should say one DBA who's capable, right?

30:18Or understands SDE. Maybe that's a better way of putting it. Can deal with it; how's that?

30:25Okay. So we want to find these gaps as early as we can, and it's not...

30:30Another thing I think that is good to note is it's...

30:34The maturity level, understanding the maturity level is so important...

30:39...but we can't judge, 'cause things grow organically throughout time.

30:43So I always tell my clients, there's nothing wrong with the way that this is. This is the way it is.

30:48If there's a place that we need to go, we're going to design to that...

30:51...and that's also another thing that I'm trying to show through this abstraction today.

30:55So the third box says "Create a detailed design." Now why would I want to create a detailed design of an old system?

31:04We get that a lot too. I do believe it's a very important part of your strategy moving forward...

31:10...even if you're going to get rid of it, is understanding what it is.

31:15And I have said this many times, and I've said this with some of you in the field...

31:19...that I don't like to take the word draft off of any diagram.

31:24I don't really believe any architecture is ever final, not when it comes to project work.

31:30We have to have final deliverables, right, so I'm not...don't be a total purist around that, but the concept is architecture evolves.

31:38It evolves as what you need it to do and it evolves with how the technology grows as well.

31:43So now, on this bottom portion here, this says "Capability creation," and it says "concrete."

31:49Now what I mean by concrete is this is reality; this is what exists today.

31:54We've created this detailed diagram; we know what we have.

31:58And now that I move up into the--this says "Abstract" in the upper left corner--I'm moving into abstract zone...

32:05...because I want to capture themes for what needs to be done. So that next step says "Capture themes."

32:15And then I have a cloud with a lightning bolt, which is supposed to denote stormy weather, not a cloud approach with software.

32:25Although that may be part of this, right?

32:27But it's supposed to denote stormy weather because I'm not sure that I've ever been in any of these engagements...

32:33...and in my own business where this wasn't turbulent.

32:40You know, where you get differing views from departments, right? Different decision makers who think of things differently.

32:49They have different what? Viewpoints, right? And that's okay because we have to synthesize these viewpoints.

32:57So as we traverse this and we get through this storminess, alright, we need to synthesize these concepts that we've all talked about...

33:02...before we can come with a solution design, a realistic solution design.

33:08Now what's interesting here is during this phase, a lot of architectural decisions get made.

33:17Why? Because here is where I find out, and here's something that I'm always looking for.

33:21I'm looking for somebody to tell me how often the technology needs to be available...

33:26...'cause that's a significant part of your architecture, right?

33:30Available meaning when somebody should be able to log in and see this thing is up and running...

33:35...and it's not going down in the middle of the day.

33:38Now, oftentimes your DBAs or even your domain folks, right?--remember that first segment?

33:44They're not really aware of how the business uses the application that they support.

33:51And then the enterprise folks in that middle segment that I talked about that are supporting what the domain is doing...

33:57...again, not always completely connected with how the end users are using that particular solution.

34:03This is where you can bring them together, okay, and you can help them.

34:07And in GIS I have found, because GIS has grown so organically throughout the years, we have a lot of that occurring...

34:15...where we have domains that are having to support business functions and they're not really staffed correctly to do this.

34:22They don't have the right hardware, and the architecture doesn't look anything like it should.

34:27So you see how we have this ability now in this turbulent, stormy time to flesh this out.

34:32And I always say it's okay if you can't actually realize it through budget or realize it through staff.

34:40At least you know there's a gap now, right? Okay.

34:46So as I come down and I come back into reality, back into the concrete, this is where I come up with an initial solution design.

34:53This is where solutions begin to really formulate for me, not first.

34:58Unless I know what we're going toward, it doesn't make a lot of sense to me.

35:02So this is where my solution design will come into play, and then solution refinement.

35:07And here, there should be constant iteration. Constant. Is this...

35:13This is what I heard; is this correct? Right? Going back to the business, I'll say, and asking them if what you heard was correct.

35:23And that final stop says, "to be or final state." The future state.

35:33Some of my customers have called this the arch of happiness.

35:43I think you should be very, very, very overt about what a solution means to you as well.

35:50Here's five different things that I think about as part of my recipe when I'm building a solution.

36:00First and foremost, it must include some part of technology, right? Core technology.

36:07For Esri, it could also be that it's core technology with partner technology.

36:15We do a lot of space in the utility world; we have some pretty valuable partners there that have extended our platform.

36:21That's what I mean here in this first slice of my recipe.

36:25Something that, believe it or not, is overlooked these days, more so...

36:29...this is something that has gone backwards sometimes over the years.

36:34But we used to start with data, right? It was so important.

36:37Then data became more prominent so we started to not think as much about data.

36:42But data is a very important part of your solution...

36:45...and it could be data in the forms of the spatial accuracy regarding a feature class...

36:51...or something that you're building, but data could also be the way that you're creating a cache, right, for supporting a web map.

36:58That's data, in my mind, as well. Okay.

37:02Or it could be the abstraction or...the abstraction of data from a particular, you know, central piece of technology...

37:09...and being moved to another place for optimized viewing.

37:15So having a data strategy is very important. Okay?

37:18Appliances are pretty interesting now, data appliances. Very interesting part of architectures.

37:22In the past, they were very expensive; become more of a commodity, right.

37:26But a very important piece of your architecture could be just putting in a data appliance.

37:31Training. Yes, training for GIS technology and for Esri technology, but also training for your staff.

37:40So if your to-be state involves a type of architecture or technology that you don't have staff to support...

37:50...you're creating a bit of a risk, right?

37:53And this happens. Okay, so training could also be the notion of augmenting your staff. Make sense?

38:06Okay. Enterprise best practices. I grappled with this. I didn't call it enterprise best practices last year.

38:12But there are best practices for deploying your GIS around enterprise type deployments...

38:19...that are different from domain type and different from cloud type.

38:22So you know, I pause there because this should just really say "best practices," but, you know, regarding this conversation today...

38:31...I think enterprise is the place to start, 'cause we can go back and forward with those best practices, right?

38:36We can take what we've learned in that middle segment, and we can adapt it with the first segment...

38:41...and we can adapt it to future deployments with that...with the third web/cloud segment.

38:47Professional services and support. Here, the notion of staff augmentation comes in as well, as well as it does with training, right?

38:55So there may be internal support organizations that you guys support or manage or maybe you don't like to work with...

39:02...but getting them sort of familiar and comfortable with what the solution is, is extremely important too. Not to avoid them, right?

39:11And of course, Esri has Professional Services and support to back up any type of solution that you're thinking about doing.

39:19So I guess the real message here is come up with some recipe that you agree with and that you feel confident with...

39:26...as you're providing a solution to your customers.

39:29And this applies to even just using the software in a domain kind of way, but let's talk a little bit about evolution.

39:36So GIS has evolved. This first circle that you see here is denoting a geocentric approach.

39:44So I'm using my tool or my application based on GIS or based on a map.

39:51I'm driving the application based upon a geocentric tool.

39:56This is very classic, a classic way that we are used to engaging with business.

40:04Now, the arrow, as we see geospatial capabilities rising, the arrow's sort of denoting this, you know, this move up...

40:10...and this move towards a larger circle where I've labeled this "geoenabled solutions."

40:15So geocentric solution, geoenabled; they're distinct.

40:20Here, what we talk about, data integration via location. We look for trends in data, for patterns, what-ifs, what's going on.

40:29Sounds very business intelligence-y, right, but it is. Right?

40:33We're talking about geofunctionality in an application that is not necessarily a GIS application.

40:39So optimizing your work force. Spatial viewing.

40:42I just gave you four different words for talking about the same patterns we talked about before.

40:47So let me go back down to the geocentric solution; here's those same patterns that I talked about earlier.

40:52Data management, planning and analysis, field operations, and operational awareness.

40:57Same patterns, different solutions, okay?

41:01So your solution recipe needs to take this into consideration as well.

41:05We do something called creating solution maps so we identify what the problems are.

41:13So as your strategy unfolds, realize that some of the gaps that you identified need to have solutions.

41:19So here's just a sample one that we made up, right.

41:21So your clients are not able to leverage ArcGIS technology across business operations...

41:27...in a manner that's consistent with our recommendations and our best practices. That's my problem statement.

41:32My cause of problem--there's a lack of communication for how the technology works.

41:37We have not reached the proper stakeholders within an organization.

41:41And unknown recommendations for best practices.

41:45What is the negative business impact?

41:46Well, Esri technology fails to meet the customer organizational needs. And it doesn't make you successful, right?

41:54Why do you use technology? You use technology to solve problems, but to be successful. We want you to be successful.

42:01So then I'm very overt about making statements for how I solve the problem.

42:05Alright, how do we solve it? Effectively communicate.

42:08Provide a client with a complete vision for leveraging the platform. Perform knowledge transfers.

42:18Positive business outcome--happy customers. Alright?

42:24Why do I like doing this? Because this also forces communication...

42:28...and it forces you to realize the differing approaches and viewpoints that folks have within your business...

42:38...within your organization, within your particular business, okay.

42:42And it forces you to agree on them. And it does cause some of your colleagues to roll their eyes.

42:50But this is a very good way for ironing out things and getting common agreement.

42:54So let's get back to the approach a little bit and dig in.

43:00Here. So now, step number 2. Alright, let's talk a little bit about these different just architectural distinctions.

43:07Okay, this is a value chain. It says, "Esri Architectural Assessment."

43:12Begins with business architecture, goes to information/technical, moves into political landscapes and IT governance.

43:19And then we move into solution architecture and best practices, new initiative planning, and then services and training.

43:25This is another one where I meant adapt this stuff. This came from an enterprise architectural framework.

43:32Andrew will use something similar in his approach with the tools, alright? It's a framework for communication.

43:40So the value chain for us begins with business architecture, number one.

43:46Let's talk about business architecture. What is it?

43:51It defines the value streams, the data value streams. That's a fancy phrase, but it literally means data value streams.

44:00So how the data is moving throughout an organization comes from your business.

44:04It doesn't come from your technologists, okay?

44:08The business defines the relationships to all external entities. And external's a relative word too.

44:14I don't necessarily mean outside of the organization. External to where that data's persisted, right?

44:21And then the relationships to other data value streams.

44:24Here's where I see a lot of things repeated in business, the same data being moved around many, many times.

44:31I think a good example, easy example for us to talk about, is pick any, any entity and think about street centerline files.

44:39Any government entity, I tend to go in and I'll find street centerline files all over the place...

44:45...and every department that I work with has some sort of stake in the ownership of those street centerline files, right?

44:53Or parcels is another good one. Things like this.

44:57So what are the events that trigger instantiation? That sounds fancy; it is.

45:01But, you know, what triggers the ownership leaving one particular organization and going into another?

45:07Or what triggers the change being made and brought back...I almost wanted to say "posted." Posted back, yeah.

45:15Posted back from a technology perspective, right?

45:19So it's composed of processes, functions, workflows, and events.

45:26Another interesting viewpoint is align your GIS technology strategy with your corporate strategy, okay? Align with it.

45:40It's one of the first questions I'll ask you when we come to work together...

45:44...because it makes it a whole lot easier to describe to your leadership...

45:47...or to leadership if you are leadership, what you're trying to do.

45:53If it's going against the grain of the overall strategy of your entire organization...

45:57...there's going to be lesser chance that you'll get funding.

46:04Okay? 'Cause this is ultimately going to be developed and managed by the organization, not by a particular individual.

46:09Although individuals may have responsibilities, right?

46:13So your business architecture represents what you must produce to satisfy your customers, right...

46:21...to compete, to sustain ops, collaborating with suppliers or vendors, and then ultimately making your employees happy.

46:34So it's going to help with alignment.

46:38So when I work, when we work with folks, we try to see the business through their eyes and through their viewpoints.

46:44That's why I think those taxonomies that we talked about this morning are so important.

46:48There's really three of them that we talked about; I'll repeat them again.

46:51There's the segments, there's the patterns, and the architectural and business viewpoints.

46:59So there's three different taxonomies I've talked about.

47:02We want to connect the necessary components, not all the components, right?

47:09I've seen some pretty complicated schemas out there, and there was a time where we did integration at the RDBMS layer...

47:17...and we had to do complicated schema mapping and things like that.

47:22Well, we don't have to connect every component of every piece of every schema to do business integration in the modern day.

47:29We've abstracted up with service orientation, okay?

47:32You heard onstage yesterday we have a pure web service to Server...

47:35...which means those of you that have ArcGIS Server have a pure web services server.

47:39You have to tell it not to be web services orientated to get it to run without web services...

47:44...so this is an opportunity for coming up a level, asking the business what they genuinely need...

47:49...and that's where you integrate with the components that are needed.

47:55Accept the evolution of technology.

47:59This is a real thing that I've learned as well, is that it's more difficult to fight it than to accept it.

48:07And I think that's probably been most apparent in service orientation at the enterprise level, not the domain level.

48:15So with service orientation, there's rapid evolution that's occurring.

48:20Software's interesting; software's different than it used to be.

48:23At a minimum--maximum, I guess I should say--we used to have software release cycles of, say, 18 to 24 months, right?

48:30Some of you probably still do. But innovation's occurring much more rapidly now, especially in that web/cloud tier.

48:37You know, two months, four months, things like this. That's forced change on upon technology itself.

48:43And to use a real example here, we have organizations that have information and data locked up in services...

48:51...because they used an approach that was very complicated, a SOAP-style approach.

48:55Now we've moved, and things have gone more towards a REST-ful approach with your web services.

49:00That's kind of what I'm getting at here, is the adaption of a more REST-ful approach...

49:03...while keeping certain things in a SOAP-based approach is okay. That's okay. That's evolution of technology, okay?

49:14Okay. Using strategic business thinking, yes, yes, yes.

49:20So understanding the business processes, business functions and workflows to me is very important.

49:25Now in engagements and the reality of it is...

49:27...I'm not talking about business process modeling here, per se, at this level of the discussion.

49:33I've seen 700-page documents about, you know, business process automation and things like that, business process management.

49:39Hopefully, those already exist, right, when we're talking at this level.

49:44If they don't, you need to back up in part of what you're doing and develop them.

49:47That's a different level of strategy, okay?

49:50So when I see these things and I see the business functions and workflows...

49:55...I'm constantly looking for where the GIS functions or GIS capabilities, geocapabilities, can augment workflows, right?

50:06And that's again, that's that notion of growing geospatial capabilities within your business enterprise.

50:15So spatially enabling information traditionally managed elsewhere.

50:20And what are the organizational requirements to facilitate each task at that level? Assign them.

50:28Assign them, because it might not be just within your organization where tasks have to be performed.

50:37And determine design patterns that will meet your needs, and that's sort of a...

50:41I dropped into this sort of REST-based web service thing for a second. That's a design pattern.

50:47If you see a particular design pattern that helps at that level, bring it into your strategy. Take every opportunity you can.

50:53So some topics around functions and process. Identifying those key business areas...

50:58...and what are their relationships to your GIS strategic plan?

51:05Ops. What are the relationships for external business systems? I literally mean their access; who can come in, how.

51:13We talked about the budgeting process already, okay?

51:17And staff organization, organizational staff roles. Okay? Very, very important.

51:26So now we'll talk briefly about information architecture. I just talked about business architecture.

51:33Discrete ways of looking at your business. So mapping your business systems.

51:39I'm going to show you an example of what all this looks like at the end.

51:42We may seem a bit abstract and you get the presentations, right? So you'll get them after the conference.

51:47I mean, don't worry about trying to read every word; you'll get them.

51:50But it's important to distinguish here that here is where you're going to actually map systems together from a level...

51:58...from a level that you're not used to looking at it as a technologist, okay.

52:02So it's almost like drawing boxes of what these business systems are, drawing lines between them...

52:07...and attributing some sort of ownership to those lines, okay?

52:12And then you can actually put SLAs on those lines and things like that, service-level agreements...

52:16...and figure out how this stuff maps out.

52:18So, I mean, much like your business architecture...

52:20...this is going to have components that are influenced by your corporate strategy, right?

52:27Developed and managed through the organization.

52:30Now your information architecture gets realized in implementation with technology, yes...

52:36...but it doesn't start with the technical architecture.

52:39Okay. So it represents the fuel that an organization must produce to satisfy applications...

52:46...and sustain applications within operations, okay?

52:51It's like the gas that you're putting into the car. Without it, everything sort of shuts down.

52:58Okay, so the ability to integrate with other interfaces is important as well...

53:02...'cause ultimately, your vision's going to include high-level interfaces.

53:09It can come directly out and through your strategy.

53:13So let's say it in more plain terms. It exposes the owner and consumer of the data streams.

53:23Your information architecture does that.

53:26Now your schema designs and these very complicated data models are part of this, okay, but they're not all of this.

53:35They feed into what this is.

53:36These are very, very interesting conversations to have and to get to this point because...I don't know.

53:45A lot of times the GIS folks think they own data that's coming from another department...

53:50...whereas those other folks that are giving them that data think they own the data.

53:55This is what I mean; there's a distinction, okay, between them.

53:59And as the GIS is leveraged more as a platform, this is going to become more and more apparent.

54:03Okay, so this promotes and regulates the agreement on those interfaces and what the SLAs are.

54:10So when I say "SLA," service-level agreement, I mean we agree, right, make an agreement...

54:14...maybe it's a written agreement, but we're agreeing that I'm going to give you a particular dataset every day at six p.m.

54:21You say, Okay, Andy, that's fine. I can...that's perfect. I need it every day at six p.m.

54:25So what did I just do? I came up with an SLA, an agreement, right, between two organizations...

54:30...but I also just effected some kind of a challenge upon my architecture.

54:36Because what happens if I don't make it there by six p.m. every day? There's some kind of repercussion.

54:43Well, if my server goes down, then I need a redundant server...

54:46...and then maybe that redundant server needs to be at a different location to ensure that I can meet that particular agreement...

54:53...that I just made with that other organization. That's what I mean.

55:01Okay. Improved documentation and support, yeah. This becomes documentation and support...

55:08...and what we'll show you towards the end of the talk today is a nice way, as you're traversing your strategy...

55:14...and building your strategy, to document these things that I'm talking about. Okay.

55:19So again, I say this again, accepting the evolution of technology is important, okay?

55:25Continuously being hung up on previous versions of software that didn't work for you doesn't get you anywhere.

55:32And I've been guilty of doing that myself in the past, okay, so evolution to me is very important.

55:39I like to promote in this area, when I'm working with customers, the notion that the geographic approach that we're talking about...

55:45...that we're all familiar with in different varying levels of experience, is business intelligence for your organization.

55:56Okay, so understanding these processes, business functions, and workflows, yes.

56:00Data and information requirements solve business challenges, right? Tell folks how you're solving their challenges.

56:08Use the data to enhance a workflow, which allows us to orchestrate the functions behind your solutions.

56:14So orchestration I think is an interesting concept as well, of all these geoprocessing services, right, or map services...

56:22...these files that you're making available via some sort of service, okay. How are they orchestrated?

56:29And how do we want to spatially enable this information that's typically managed elsewhere?

56:33Okay. This will influence design patterns for your solutions, you know, very, very specifically.

56:43Okay. So these look very familiar, again, to these attributes that I have up here regarding information architecture...

56:51...very similar as they were for business.

56:53So business functions and processes. What are the key business areas? Actually, they're the same items.

56:58How does this relate back to the strategic plan?

57:03How does it relate to the external business systems in terms of operations, and what of the effect on organizational staff and roles?

57:13Let's talk about technology architecture. It has to align with business needs.

57:19This will define the technologies that are required to support your automation environment.

57:26Now, this gets very interesting as well. Last year, didn't even talk about this, but I'm beginning to see things occur...

57:32...where businesses are beginning to realize that IT expenditures are so high...

57:37...and that IT is not necessarily central to the function of their revenue stream, I'll say.

57:44So this is where we see the organizations beginning to leverage cloud-style approaches as well.

57:53Because their strategy, they realize, as we iron things out for IT, didn't necessarily align with what they do, right?

58:02So that three-segment thing again I mentioned earlier becomes very important.

58:06We shouldn't design for a segment that we can't support as we build a solution.

58:11Okay. So identify technologies that are critical.

58:16Now you would think that in a pure technical architecture discussion we would be able to get down to things like...

58:22...well, what do I want to use for my development platform? Well, that's part of the conversation, but this comes first.

58:31So how am I going to support company-wide connectivity?

58:33We should answer that question before we design to which type of web service standard we want, right?

58:40Okay, the integration of data and to complement existing integration. This looks very much the same again, right?

58:49But technical architecture will help with meeting business needs and system needs, okay, for reducing the costs of maintenance...

58:57...and the evolution--so for upgrades here, alright--if we've got a common technology architecture.

59:04And the notion of increasing reuse. Let's think about some topics real quick.

59:10The landscape itself, the to-be, may be different from what the as-is state is, okay?

59:17So this is where that arch of happiness that I talked about is so important to get that done.

59:24What is the application landscape that exists? Are there standards that exist already that we should adhere to? Right?

59:32And what are the future initiatives and goals?

59:34Again, you can pull a lot of future initiatives and goals out of your organization's strategic plan itself.

59:44Political landscape and governance, okay?

59:47Governance is a subset discipline of your corporate governance around IT, okay?

59:53It specifies decision rights. I love that phrase. Your governance specifies decision rights.

59:59The governance within your organization is going to denote who gets root or sys.

1:00:06Evaluate the plans, direct plans, for use of IT in support of your organization in monitoring capabilities.

1:00:15These have to align with plans, or you're not going to be able to fund the ways you're going to manage...

1:00:18...operate, and monitor your systems.

1:00:23Now, I have blurred-out words here and application names. Don't want to incriminate anyone.

1:00:35This is a really interesting diagram, and some of you in the back, this might be a good time to look up.

1:00:41What I've got here is a bunch of boxes, and ultimately, what I was doing here was just asking a number of business...

1:00:48...a number of organizations within a business what they do. Just what they do.

1:00:54I didn't care about J2EE versus EJB. I was just asking them what they did and looking for how it touched GIS.

1:01:04So I drew a box first, right, then I would name it based upon what they told me it was...

1:01:09...and then I would write within the box what are the systems that they use, pieces of technology to solve that need, that task.

1:01:20And this is an actual engagement, and we did this over the course of a couple days...

1:01:25...and what you see here coming around, the one thing that I did not blur out, is that says, "geodatabase." Right?

1:01:34We didn't start with GIS, folks; we just talked to the business, and ultimately...

1:01:38...we were able to draw all of these lines back to a single instance of a geodatabase. Okay.

1:01:44Now some of these applications have 24 by 7 uptime requirements, right, specific performance expectations.

1:01:58I think if we looked at the business first, we might not have a single instance of a single piece of technology...

1:02:03...supporting all of these mission-critical workflows.

1:02:09We did this by executing that strategy that we talked about so far today. Is that clear in its most simple way?

1:02:17Just asking the business what they do.

1:02:19Now we're able to go back, because this becomes our as-is state where we can identify gaps.

1:02:26Because I'll tell you, when we were talking to these folks, they were pretty unhappy with the way that the thing performed, okay?

1:02:35So I have this catchphrase--I always consider the geodatabase innocent until proven guilty.

1:02:40It's my job to figure out if it is guilty, right?

1:02:44And wow, how did I get to that? I thought this was a technology strategy discussion.

1:02:48Well, it's all interrelated, 'cause your strategy should involve building solutions and a system...

1:02:55...that supports the business in a way that they expect it to support the business.

1:03:01Okay, so with that, I'm going to--I'm going to...

1:03:05You guys want to see some actual technology and a way to document this process? Okay, let's do that.

1:03:11You're B? I need the mic? Yeah. Switch on. [Inaudible]

1:03:48Thank you, Andy. So you received lots of information that helps you create the strategy, but you know...

1:03:59...there are some specifics--specific artifacts that need to come out of the strategy.

1:04:06And one of it needs to be a guidance for solution architecture.

1:04:12So strategy needs to pave the road for how to approach the architectures. What are the artifacts?

1:04:20How do we...how would...what are the key steps?

1:04:23And fortunately, we follow the same steps according to TOGAF so there will be no difference.

1:04:30The only difference is the level of details.

1:04:33So we're going, in this part of the session, we're moving from the high-level strategy...

1:04:38...and we're going just a little bit below to address the architecture.

1:04:42But it's kind of the same thing except the different level of detail.

1:04:47So what we would like to show you is the System Designer.

1:04:52It's a tool, but behind the tool is a process, and it aligns very well with everything that Andy presented to you...

1:04:58...and also ties nicely to the TOGAF framework.

1:05:02So let me just give you a quick overview, first, of the tool and then a demo.

1:05:09So the tool helps you design a solution architecture.

1:05:13The number one thing that you could benefit is that it helps you gather the requirements.

1:05:18It's not just gathering requirements and having the forms, but it's designed as a wizard...

1:05:24...so it will actually guide you through this process.

1:05:26So it will kind of force you to complete, you know, one segment of your architecture before you move in...

1:05:34...and it also gives you the drop-downs, hints, what level of detail needs to be included.

1:05:41Perhaps at the strategy level you wouldn't be doing the design, but it's really good to know for you in charge of GIS strategies...

1:05:51...well, what are the level of details [that] are going into designs? What are the specific elements?

1:05:55So perhaps you will not be doing this, but it's good to check it out.

1:05:59What are your colleagues who will take your strategy, who will do...take your architecture...

1:06:04...what will they have to do to complete this design?

1:06:09And of course, one of the outcomes of your strategy will be capacity planning, yes?

1:06:14What is the total cost? How much hardware do we need to buy? How many licenses?

1:06:18You know, what partners or vendors? So absolutely the capacity is required.

1:06:24And again, we're not talking about the scientific calculation of the capacity, but how do we approach this?

1:06:30And you know, you will see later, I will show you, that we provide technology templates that will kind of give you...

1:06:35...you know, for a medium organization, you probably should be thinking about this range of hardware...

1:06:40...and that's how you can move on.

1:06:42And finally, reporting. It's very important because for large organizations, you will have lots of pieces of information.

1:06:49It will be continuously changing, and one thing that, you know, Andy mentioned last year...

1:06:54...the phrase that I keep using, "this will never be done; this will always be in the draft mode," yes?

1:07:00So it's very important that whatever we do, we need to make sure that we can easily revise and reuse and add and modify.

1:07:08And the chances are, by the time you're done, you know, with buying your new brand physical server...

1:07:13...your IT will tell you, Well, now we're going to virtualization, and then it will tell you, Well, now actually, we're going to Amazon.

1:07:20And just, you see how it is? And that's probably what's happening to you right now...

1:07:25...so it will never be done completely, therefore, it's a good investment.

1:07:32It aligns with TOGAF and all the steps that Andy was mentioning, so we start with the business architecture.

1:07:41And here we're touching on a little bit more details.

1:07:44Like in our case, in the System Designer, what does "business architecture" really mean?

1:07:50It cannot capture all of the processes at the enterprise level, but it can do really nicely identify where your users are...

1:07:57...where's your infrastructure so you can create a map like this, what are your business processes, users' workflows.

1:08:05And now we're going a little bit lower.

1:08:07We're not just calling this business workflows, but, you know, "printing map" is a business process.

1:08:14So you see that we're going from these high-level, abstract terms into GIS-specific operations.

1:08:23And it helps us go down with the design.

1:08:27There is some help with the data architecture.

1:08:30With application architecture, you will have all the drop-downs that will help you select the architect...

1:08:35...current technology offered by Esri. So we update these drop-downs.

1:08:42And as I mentioned earlier, capacity planning and deployment details.

1:08:47So that's just a quick overview of the tool.

1:08:50In addition to this, we are working on technology templates, and I think you would find this very, very helpful...

1:08:56...because sometimes you just want to open up a solution called, you know, Asset Management Flex Viewer application.

1:09:05Well, what does Esri mean by that? And you will have a Visio and a little bit of design and perhaps also the capacity planning...

1:09:13...so these things will definitely come handy.

1:09:18Okay. Just go back and show you very briefly alignment of the tool with the TOGAF...

1:09:25...and we tried to follow the same, the same framework.

1:09:28So we need to identify where the users are--are we global architecture? Are we centralized? Are we hybrid? Are we federated?

1:09:35...--and that will help you to capture this.

1:09:38Then when we go to the business architecture, we actually can capture specific user workflows.

1:09:42For example, is it the web or desktop?

1:09:45It's just a different elevation, different level of detail that we provide.

1:09:51Finally, it's the system architecture where we address application; attribute qualities; data; and finally, technology...

1:10:00...where we really need to specify what type of servers. Is it virtual? How are they connected? Where are the firewalls?

1:10:07You know, all sorts of things that we need to think about, how the system will actually be implemented.

1:10:15So I think we still have a couple of minutes. You know, if you can bear with me, I'd love to show you quickly this tool.

1:10:28Okay. So I'm not sure if you can see; I'll enlarge.

1:10:37So right here you will see my cursor.

1:10:40What I would like to attract your attention to, to this ribbon, and the ribbon is designed, you know...

1:10:47...based on the process you should follow when it comes to designing the architecture.

1:10:53So for example, the tool is designed to make the usability, not to reflect the alignment with the TOGAF.

1:11:04So if, for example, for some reason there is a reason why we are starting with the application...

1:11:11...you can come and you create an application, and we provide different drop-downs.

1:11:17And it just from the start, you have a sense of what application types are offered and related patterns by Esri.

1:11:27Then, you know, when you're done with this--excuse me. Oops. Okay.

1:11:40So we would follow this process, and you click on each side; for example, in Site, we define where they are located.

1:11:52We can provide geocoding, and--oops. I think I'm...this resolution is taking my space.

1:12:06And I think that one of the interesting parts would be software for you, so we define these different applications.

1:12:18For example, let's say how would we design web applications?

1:12:23We select Web Application, and the whole system is divided into tiers, so I will just go to the GIS Services tier...

1:12:33...and if you select that, you will have a different choices of our services.

1:12:40As you see, all these technologies, all these services offered by ArcGIS Server are available to you.

1:12:47And you're clearly not at design level, but you kind of have a sense of what's available, so you can just pick one.

1:12:55And at this point, you can just pick Map Service, representing the entire GIS...

1:13:01...and later, other people will split it into WCS and WMS and Image Server, so that's the idea.

1:13:09And of course, you know, with the hardware it's the same thing.

1:13:13We have different, different types of hardwares here but also specific servers...

1:13:22...so you can select different options, including Amazon.

1:13:30And probably the most useful at this level is this ability to use our models and view your design...

1:13:44...and it will produce Visio for you, and you can actually learn from that but also design your own and include it in your report.

1:13:56So we will switch, couple of more slides.

1:14:04So in a way, Andrew, it's a really useful way to design and document your current state and then use it to, leverage it to produce...

1:14:13...what that future state would be, and you can actually utilize it to model what it would look like from a performance perspective.

1:14:19Right? Just sort of tie it together there. Very, very interesting approach.

1:14:23Leadership likes to see this, 'cause they like to see what they're paying for.

1:14:28Thanks, Andy. We would just have couple of wrap-up slides.

1:14:33So for those of you who are interested, please send me e-mail or, you know...

1:14:38...the free [unintelligible] is available on the FTP site. It's right here.

1:14:45Free software... Yes. ...with this talk. Yes.

1:14:51If you're interested in this tool, we have another related session. It's at eight-thirty on Thursday.

1:14:57I will talk more about the architecture. And back to you, Andy.

1:15:03Okay. Oh, no, actually... Oh, we're good, yeah.

1:15:07So with that said, thank you.

Copyright 2014 Esri
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