00:01My name is Makram Murad-al-shaikh and I will be presenting this workshop for you on cartography.
00:12Can you change that to the presentation until they [unintelligible].
00:21The one that the ...
00:25No, not this one. This one, yeah, this one, yeah.
00:32I studied engineering way back when I was studying my bachelor's degree, and I kind of liked maps all the time...
00:42...so when time came and I was still in Baghdad teaching in the higher education system...
00:49...I decided to change course.
00:51So, I went to the University in Wisconsin and did my master's degree in cartography and science in Wisconsin...
01:01...and I studied under all these big names of cartography, like Morrison and Robinson, if you have...
01:09...heard of the Robinson projection.
01:11I met the guy and I invited him for dinner, Iraqi dinner, at home.
01:16My wife was with me, this is why I could invite people.
01:20And then they asked me what do I want to do in lieu of a thesis, if you want to do non-thesis options...
01:30...and I said, well, I want to do it in remote sensing, so I did that.
01:34And while I was there in 1982, I was two years old, and this is when they...there was a course called...
01:42...Problems in Cartography, and they would change the topic each year.
01:46And this year, that year was in GIS.
01:49And I thought, well, let's take it, because I have to take it anyway.
01:53So, I took that course and I thought, that is what I want to do, maybe in the future.
01:58Unfortunately, I was forced to go back to Iraq to enjoy two more wars.
02:06The end of the war of Iran and the Gulf War, and after that I left the country and in 1992...
02:13...I came to the United States and in 1993 I was employed by Esri.
02:19Not ESRI, Esri.
02:21Now I have to get used to it. And I've been teaching since then, all different courses.
02:27I don't teach only cartography, but I wrote the cartography course, the original cartography course.
02:33And I also teach GIS cartography courses in local colleges and universities since 1996.
02:42Let me...Jorge, would you like to speak, something, just a few words.
02:48He has been an instructor too.
02:51Just in case something happens to me, at least you know that he has credentials, too.
02:59Okay. I don't have a microphone.
03:03They're going to...Yeah, just shout!
03:05I don't need a microphone.
03:08Only the cartographer needs a microphone. I'm a geographer. [inaudible] ....I'm just here helping Makram...
03:19and we work together and we love maps, and I hope we can have a good time through this presentation and [inaudible]...
03:31...for many years following the path of teaching GIS and making maps...
03:39...and trying to make the best maps that we can use to communicate, and useful maps with GIS, not...
03:47...beautiful maps for your walls...at...home and use it as...oh, look at this!
03:56I've spent thousands of dollars to build this beautiful map.
04:01We want to use maps in the field and anywhere.
04:05You'll see. We have been principled to tell you...Okay.
04:09Thank you, Jorge. This is another guy with an accent, like me.
04:13I studied under the American Jesuits from New England in Baghdad, nine years with them, high school and university.
04:19Anyway, so this is what we're going to tell you today.
04:23Since we have two screens and I can only point to one, anyone can tell me if they can see the red dot if I don't shake it.
04:36And so sometimes I will be entertaining you, and sometimes I will be entertaining you guys.
04:43So this is what I'm going to tell you about, we will define cartography for you and thank you for...
04:48...coming all of you, for this session.
04:51Cutting yourself from software and coming to learn about cartography which has nothing to do with the software.
04:57Well, yes it does.
04:58I will point to some things that are related to the software and since I hope there will be no meetings in this room...
05:07...I can extend it as I please, and if you like to stay.
05:11There's nothing else to do after that, I guess.
05:14So, I will define cartography, talk about the communication channel, and why maps fail.
05:22And talk about the objectives and limitations that are affecting the design, and talk about cartographic design issues...
05:31...and how you would abuse GIS cartography.
05:36Not to abuse, I mean.
05:38So, what is cartography?
05:40Different resources would define it differently.
05:44In the International Cartographic Association, they would define it as the art, science, and technology of making maps.
05:55And notice the word "art" is not in red, which means it's okay to have beautiful maps but it is not the main objective...
06:03...of why you should create a map, because you can always be an artist and do whatever you want but whether...
06:09...the art will be useful or not, it's a different issue, and that's what I am trying to preach in this entire workshop here.
06:21Some would define it as making maps and some of them would define it as presentation, but my main...
06:27...word here is "use."
06:29It is about use. It is not about you creating the map, it is how the 10,000 people who are going to read your map...
06:38...whether they are going to make use of that map or not, and this is what you should be always having in mind...
06:44...when you're creating any map.
06:47So I am here to sitting somewhere on my desk.
06:52I am a cartographer, I am a map specialist, I am a GIS specialist, I am not that fat!
07:04I could be a CAD specialist, and I would be compiling data from different sources in reality.
07:11It could be images from space, it could be images from, or photos from low altitude, high altitude...
07:20...photography, could be from maps that I have collected, and I could also have lived in the place.
07:26And sit down here, and based on the objective of why am I creating the map, I would recognize...
07:35...that objective and recognize all that data, and select from it what is relevant to my objective...
07:46...and then classify, simplify my selection, and then finally put some symbols on it, or representing it...
07:56...on a piece of paper or maybe on the screen, and give it to my users who are sitting or standing there...
08:03...with a map and reading, analyzing, and interpreting what I have placed.
08:09So , this is similar to when I give you directions to my house.
08:13I will say, okay, you exit on this highway, you exit on exit 16, turn right on this street...
08:23...turn left after the second traffic light, turn left and turn right and so on, until I get you to the place.
08:33However, I selectively did not tell you, after each one of these rights and lefts, what do you see on the right...
08:40...and what do you see on the left?
08:42I selectively did not.
08:44I did not tell you that there's a red building on the corner where you're going to turn right on.
08:51So this is the same thing we're doing with our maps; we're actually looking at all that data that we have collected...
08:57...and we only select what we think it is relevant to the objective of the map, and then put it on that piece of paper.
09:05And these people are going to look at my two-dimensional symbols, and they would extrude a vertical height...
09:17...or elevation of these buildings or these, whatever symbols, a tree that I put for them.
09:22And it depends on their conception of reality whether they are going to...they would put their...
09:30...own windows and doors on these buildings, and also they will change it maybe to not only a rectangular one...
09:38...but how the architect would like it to be with all these crooked inside, in and out of the edges of the buildings.
09:47So they can do whatever they want.
09:48It's not under my control anymore.
09:51I gave them the map, that's it.
09:53And they are going to create a mental image of that reality.
09:59Same thing as we are trying to create the mental image of the reality as I am trying to describe to you...
10:06...where...how to come to my place.
10:10So whatever I give you, or I give that map reader in my map, is going to affect how this person is...
10:22...going to reconstruct that image of reality in their minds...
10:26...and how useful would that map would be to them.
10:31So what is cartographic design?
10:33It is a complex task.
10:35On your screen display, you have three light guns.
10:40One for the green, one for the blue, and one for the red.
10:44Each one has 256 different shades.
10:46If you multiply this by simple math, this is like 16.7 million colors that you have to choose from.
10:57That's a lot to choose.
10:58It's like you're finishing high school in the United States and you don't know what to do.
11:03You're going to school.
11:04You want to go to study.
11:06You've got millions of different disciplines that you can go to and apply to.
11:11It's very confusing.
11:13Same thing as with maps.
11:15There's so many symbols that you can create.
11:18Each line can be a full line, can be a dashed line, can be a dotted line, can be a dash and a dot, a dash and a circle...
11:25...and a dash and a plus.
11:27Millions of combinations and you have to choose from what to choose from.
11:30So, it's a complex task.
11:33It's a highly creative mental activity.
11:35You have a specialization. You're a geologist, you're a geomorphologist, you're a hydrologist, you're a city planner.
11:43You're an environmentalist and you have your own discipline.
11:45You have all the specialty that you need to work in.
11:50And then you have collected all this data, and then you came to my presentation here, and you've learned all that...
11:57...thing, and you're going to collect all this kind of information and put it in your map.
12:03So, it is a complex type of a task, and it is highly creative.
12:08You're thinking about how you place things in the map and what to put and how to color it, and so on.
12:14You're using concepts of communication.
12:17You're communicating with your graphics.
12:19You're actually thinking in visual terms.
12:22You're trying to create some hierarchy in your symbology, like larger symbols for more important type of information...
12:29...quantitatively, and less important would be a smaller size, and so on.
12:35And all this, all these four things, are pointing towards creating a useful map.
12:42You want the end person who is going to use it, is going to make use of it.
12:48What are, then, cartographic objectives?
12:52There are two types - one is called the map objectives, and the other one is design objectives.
12:57The map objectives, why am I creating the map in the first place?
13:01I have to ask myself, well, I could be highlighting some spatial relationships; I could be illustrating some analysis...
13:09...results that I have worked for two weeks on and now I am trying to present it; I want to convey some information...
13:17...and, finally, I want to have some easier comprehension of this complex type of events that are happening around us...
13:25...and I am presenting it with this piece of paper or this display.
13:30Now, how do you do that, is what the design objectives are.
13:34So I am going to take what I have, what I want to create and assign some meaningful symbology to whatever...
13:45...I want to create, and basically I am trying to fulfill these map objectives and ensure some truthful...
13:54...depiction of reality. A meandering rivers should be meandering no matter what scale of map you're using...
14:02...if it's a large scale or small scale, so it continues to be meandering.
14:05So it's a truthful representation of reality.
14:09And you want to fulfill some communication objective.
14:13Communication objective is actually, what are you trying to create?
14:18Which type of maps?
14:20And one of them would be a general map, and a second one would be a thematic map.
14:24A general map meaning that you have no bias toward any discipline, like topographic map is being created...
14:33...for many different disciplines.
14:35You do not want to be biased to any discipline, and therefore your symbology will have a variety of information...
14:42...but your symbology will be of equal importance.
14:46And therefore, your symbology should be subtle, which means no dark colors, no large objects...
14:54...so that you do not attract attention to something that you do not want to attract attention to...
15:00...because basically you're not biased.
15:04But, in thematic maps, you are actually focusing your design on specific things.
15:13Like, for instance, you want to create, in terms of qualitative thematic maps, you want to create a soil map...
15:21...so you are biased towards the soil society or discipline.
15:26And it is qualitative because, what you are trying to do is to just identify which soils they are.
15:34You are not saying that this soil is more important than the others.
15:38So, basically, all your soils are equally important, and therefore your symbology should also reflect that.
15:45You should not use dark or light in that kind of map.
15:50All of them should be of subtle type of symbology.
15:54In terms of quantitative, yes, I want to make some large and some small, because I am depicting quantity.
16:02So there are some places where there are more population and there are more places that are less population...
16:08...and therefore my large or small symbol would indicate that.
16:13The size would be the type of quality or property that you want to establish in this map.
16:23You can turn a soil map from qualitative to quantitative by saying, okay, I want to accentuate this map...
16:32...by some color, indicating that this soil is more fertile for corn production.
16:39In this case you are being biased now toward the other soil types that are nonproductive for the corn...
16:48...and so you want to make it darker or maybe you want to show it in a different color.
16:56Like, for instance, red, which comes to your eyes in a higher visual level than green or than blue...
17:04...because of the wavelength, and how our eyes and retina would react to the longer wavelength first...
17:12...which is red, and the shorter wavelength next.
17:18So, next thing you want to think about, which projection should I use?
17:24Well, I am licensed to say that there is no projection on earth that is correct.
17:30And for those of you who have been attending the previous session, you already discovered that.
17:35There are some distortions, and these distortions can be either in shape or area or distance or direction.
17:45You cannot maintain all these four properties in one map.
17:51You can maintain it on the earth's surface, and you can do nothing about it, because this is how it is.
17:57But when you turn it into a two-dimensional piece of paper, this is when projection is going to be used...
18:04...and this is when you have to do away with at least one or even two or even three of these properties, and just keep one.
18:14For instance, you maintain only, you preserve only area.
18:19This is what is called an equal area projection.
18:22This is what you should be using maybe in a population density map, where you want to compare data...
18:29...based on density; in this case, it has to be an equal area projection.
18:37And there are three different types of projections, by geometry, it's cylindrical, conical and azimuthal.
18:46These are the developing surface that you would be actually using to project all the earth's surface - the different objects...
18:58...on the earth's surface into the inside and to the underside of these different developing shapes...
19:03...and then you would cut it open and then you flatten it, then this is what is called a projection.
19:11This is basically a very simple way of explaining projections, but it is more involved because...
19:19...it has a lot of mathematics.
19:21In the good old days when I was studying cartography, I had to sit down and calculate by a calculator - yeah, there...
19:33...was some calculators in my age. At that time, I was studying.
19:37So I had to calculate every coordinate and then grow it myself.
19:43Now you have a push of a button to pick up a projection.
19:47You are more lucky than I was when I was studying projections.
19:54Now, how much detail should I include in my map?
19:58Well, it depends on what scale are you using.
20:02If you are creating a large-scale map for the city where you want to have every tree should be taken care of...
20:12...in the map, this is a very large-scale map.
20:15Normally the engineers would love that.
20:22And it is important because they are going to run the pipes, and they want to know not only the location of the trees...
20:30...but what type of roots.
20:33Do they grow downward, or they spread horizontally, and you want to be away from the roots when they...
20:40...grow horizontally, so that you lay the pipe and you don't have a lot of maintenance to do on your pipes...
20:46...so you need a large-scale map.
20:48But if you're trying to develop, you're a city developer, and you'd like to see how the city is expanding in the year...
20:59...maybe, 2020 and 2030, then you don't care about the individual trees anymore.
21:07You are now looking at a smaller-scale map where you are going to get rid of a lot of details...
21:14...and this is what generalization is all about, and then you are going to look at the general picture of the larger extent.
21:22This is why you go from a large scale to a small scale, because you're not interested in local details...
21:29...you're more interested in larger extent.
21:32So, you would be using generalization, and these are the different types of generalizations...
21:38...or things that you could do, so you could omit.
21:44Omitting, meaning there are these four different larger rectangles and there are some small ones.
21:53You keep the larger rectangles and you get rid of the smaller ones.
21:57Of course, engineers and surveyors will hate you for that, but this is life.
22:02You are looking at a smaller scale.
22:04So you're not interested in that detail; this is okay.
22:07Don't give your map at a small scale to the engineer or to the surveyor, basically.
22:13So, in terms of the river systems, also all these different smaller tributaries...
22:21...can be just deleted.
22:24You can aggregate, so you have several different locations of points, and instead of representing them as points...
22:32...say, they are trees, instead of showing them as point features, you can create a polygon aggregating...
22:39...them into a zone of trees, which is called a forest.
22:44And then you would specify in your database a polygon instead of a point.
22:51You can also collapse.
22:53You are looking...this generalization is happening into two types of...most of the generalization is happening...
23:02...when you are going from large scale to small scale, but also you can do it at the same scale...
23:08...but for another purpose, you do not want too much detail and you can get rid of things.
23:13But, most of the things are happening at a small scale.
23:15So at a small scale, a thin river, which is presented as a polygon here, can be collapsed into a line, which you can.
23:27You don't need the polygons, you will go into a line.
23:30At the larger scale, you have digitized all your streets as polygons.
23:37But what if you wanted to do network analysis?
23:41You cannot do network analysis with polygons.
23:44You have to collapse them into lines, centerlines, and then do the analysis on the lines, instead.
23:50And so we have simplified it.
23:52There's a lot of vertices here in the lines, and also there are many different pieces of information for the buildings.
24:00I can generalize it, I simplify it with lesser, maybe lesser meandering here - still meandering...
24:05But if you're not, then this is image flattening that you...
24:07...but lesser meandering than what it was.
24:09And also in terms of the buildings.
24:11I can also displace - displace, that means I can move a feature away from its position.
24:19Don't tell your surveyors you did that.
24:23You can do that because you are trying to create an easier-to-read map.
24:30There are two lines that are very close, and you want to show them as they are separate.
24:36As you go to a smaller scale, these two lines are going to really combine and become one.
24:42So what you have, you have the cartographic license to spread them apart.
24:50Now here's the deal.
24:51Instead of telling the surveyors I did that, you tell them, I'm going to use cartographic representation and then...
25:00...I'm going to graphically move these apart, but the geometry range is the same.
25:06This way, everybody's happy.
25:08But you have to learn cartographic representation.
25:11This is why you need to go to a cartography course.
25:14Or maybe ask downstairs tomorrow about cartographic representation.
25:19You could typify.
25:21So I've got these two, four, six buildings in here.
25:24I typify it with three buildings.
25:27I want to show there are buildings, but I don't want to show every single building.
25:30I am going to a small scale. This will be too crowded, so I just typify it with three.
25:34I should also refine.
25:36So instead of having this particular jagged line, which happens to be somebody who has done very crooked...
25:45...or maybe very fast digitizing, I could refine it by maybe curving those lines a little bit.
25:53But what I'm doing actually, I'm deceiving the map reader.
25:56Anytime you make changes like these, please don't tell them Makram told me this.
26:00You have three different types of clay soils at the larger scale.
26:03Tell them, with a small line underneath, that I have moved things away from location for clarity.
26:13Be frank so that people will actually always believe you, that you're not cheating.
26:19You can tell them that you have also added some vertices to these to make it nicer, look nicer.
26:25So tell them this. Not too tiny, like the advertising in the credit cards.
26:33They show too-tiny text.
26:36Legible enough to read, but not too overwhelming on the map.
26:47At the smaller scale, you just want to tell them that this is clay.
26:50You don't care about montmorillonite or illite or calamite for those guys and the geologists...
26:59...that are sitting here in the audience.
27:01You just tell them, I want this area to be named as plate...
27:05...and that's enough for me at the smaller scale.
27:07I'm not interested in details.
27:10This is when you are increasing the thickness of the line beyond what the scale allows you to.
27:16So I want a 10-meter-wide road at a scale of 1 to a million would be .01 millimeter.
27:28There's no such pen in the industry that can grow .01.
27:32The smallest is the .1, which is equivalent to the triple-zero [unintelligible] pens.
27:39And that's the smallest it can go.
27:40Well, the microfilming industry can go to .08.
27:46But you still, this is .01.
27:48But .01 is a very thin line.
27:50But you want to make sure that it looks, people would find it.
27:55Remember, it's all about the user, it's all about the map reader.
27:58You want to make it a little bit thicker, so you exaggerate the thickness of the line so they can see it when...and...
28:07...they can discover it when they are reading the map.
28:10But, when you do so, please have that statement at the bottom, telling them that you exaggerated the thickness...
28:17...of the line for clarity purposes.
28:21What symbol should I use?
28:22Okay, I am now at the point I'm trying to decide on a qualitative map against a quantitative map.
28:29Well, a qualitative map, that means I can change differences in color, I can change differences in shape...
28:37...I can change differences in...or use differences in texture or pattern.
28:43This I can use.
28:45I cannot use size, or graytone value - how dark or light it is, that's graytone value.
28:55This is for quantitative symbology to use.
29:00What colors should I use?
29:02Okay, so I'm thinking of red.
29:04How many are thinking of the same red?
29:07And remember I can change my mind.
29:11We cannot communicate red just by telling you I am thinking of red.
29:17I could be...there is at least four different reds in here.
29:21So, I need to give you more details.
29:24This is why we came up with these dimensions, like hue, and value, and saturation, so I have to give you...
29:31...which color hue it is, so I'm telling you it's red or green.
29:36And let's stick with green so my other examples are green.
29:42And the second dimension I have to tell you is value, which means how dark or light is that green.
29:50And then, saturation is how bright or dim is that green.
29:57And so this is three different important dimensions that I have to give you.
30:03This is the hue, saturation, and value, one of many different types of color models that ArcGIS and ArcMap can support.
30:13We have the RGB, which is the red, green, and blue, and then we have the cyan, magenta, and yellow.
30:22The red, green, and blue is for your screens.
30:26Any map you create for your screens, you can use the RGB, because is our default in ArcMap.
30:31See, I told you, I'm going to talk a little bit about software.
30:34And the cyan, magenta, and yellow, you think about it when you are going to send the map to a printer.
30:40So you change your settings inside ArcMap to go into cyan, magenta, and yellow, and design your map accordingly...
30:48...because this is easier to translate when it goes to print on your printer.
30:53And hue, saturation, and values is another one and there's other different types like the CIE color model, and so on.
31:03Colors have connotations.
31:08Colors have conventions.
31:09Connotations like, for instance, red for higher temperatures.
31:15Blue for lower temperatures.
31:17Conventions. Some are, there are some...like the geological society.
31:26Internationally, they have sat down and decided what colors they would use for their different types of...
31:36...rocks. So metamorphic, and all that.
31:41And there are some color preferences.
31:43I prefer green; how many of you sitting in the audience like green?
31:49See? Not all of you like green.
31:51So you should not force your green color onto somebody else.
31:58This is why you need to do some research on your society on what colors they would prefer...
32:05...so that you can sit down and view use for your type of organizations or your type of state or sometimes...
32:16...in different countries - like, for instance, I know about Iraq.
32:19In northern part of Iraq, they just like bright colors.
32:23So, if you choose not to create maps with bright colors, this is offensive to them, maybe.
32:31So, it's especially true for you guys in the United States who take some contracts for working for other countries
32:39...you need to study what type of color they'd like in those other countries, so that you can design accordingly.
32:53And also for maps that you create on your screen, you use some colors, they will not go and be printed the same way...
33:04...as you think they would, because you have 16.7 million colors that are going to translate to...
33:10...something like 256 different colors on your printer.
33:15This is why we always tell you to print the - what is it called again? - that MXD that we have in the software?
33:26I always forget it.
33:34I will remember; it will come.
33:37So there is this MXD file that has, it is a color model in which you can print it on every printer that you have calibrate.mxd.
33:48Search that under the program files, ArcGIS, search for calibrate.mxd.
33:56And then send it to print to your printer that you are going to use to create your maps with...
34:03...then select the colors that are from that chart so that you can make sure that whatever you select...
34:13...on your screen actually be printed, the same color that you want.
34:21Now this is for you guys.
34:24A lot of GIS people do not know that the human eye cannot decipher, cannot, notice the word "not"...
34:35...cannot decipher more than 12 colors on one map.
34:44I will repeat it. They cannot decipher more than 12 colors on one map.
34:50If you put more than 12, it's going to be a nice-looking map.
34:56But not...starts with a "u"...not useful.
35:02Which means they cannot decipher the colors.
35:04Like, for instance, if you look at these colors, this one in here, this one in here, to me on my screen at least...
35:10...over there because this, just by way, went to the projector, and so the optics did their play on it, dissipated...
35:20...some of the light, and also my screen here did some defractions on it.
35:24So they're not the same colors as on my screen anyway.
35:27This is just to remind you of the printers, also. They do the same thing.
35:32So, these two colors are the same.
35:36These two colors to me are the same.
35:39These three, they are very close.
35:42These are, when you try to create a map and let the software decide for you, to ArcMap, to the computer...
35:52...this is at 253 of red and 254.
35:59It knows it's different, but to my eye, it's not.
36:03So you need to think about the user.
36:06Also, in terms of the maximum shades of the same color, the human eye cannot decipher more than...
36:15...seven or, maximum, eight.
36:17In fact, in our teaching now at Esri in the courses, we say six to seven, even.
36:25And these should be distinct shades from the 0 to 255 continuum of the shades of the same color.
36:34You have to pick one from here, one from here, one from here, one from here.
36:37So it has to be distinct.
36:40This is when you are trying to use quantitative type of mapping, when you're classifying your data.
36:48The default is 5, by the way, in ArcMap.
36:52But you can go to 100, if you want.
36:55You can choose 100.
36:56But, whether that's going to be a useful map or not, is not going to be useful.
37:01Now you have to think sometimes about the color impaired.
37:04I tried my best to bring this to the same colors that I think it was from research.
37:11This is how people with deficiency in red would see.
37:16The colors that normal eyes would see.
37:19So there's no red. The deficiency in green, they would see like this.
37:23Those who are blue defective would see this.
37:27And those who are blue defective, by the way, are very rare.
37:32And by the way, the women actually have better, they are better than men in terms of color deficiency.
37:44There are some 5 to 8 percent of the male population who are color deficient.
37:50And the women, is only .5. This is because of the XX and XY chromosomes, if you learned your biology...
37:57...way back in high school.
37:59So you need to avoid for these people when you're asked, try to avoid pure green or pure red.
38:06Instead use for them shapes, different shapes and different textures.
38:10And also what you could do is you can use changes in brightness instead.
38:16Brightness, contrast instead of changing or adding more colors.
38:24Now, this is what you should not use.
38:30It is called optical illusions.
38:35Any time you use a checker box like this where you use symbol component of black is alternating...
38:42...with an equal size of white, it will vibrate.
38:47And the way to discover that is just move your head slightly this way or that way and I won’t tell you’re doing that.
38:58Just move like this and you’ll see it vibrating.
39:01Do it the same way with this one.
39:05Also there’s something else that happens.
39:07The human eye was created in such a way that we actually see illusions like these.
39:15So, these are five rectangles that have been shaded progressively.
39:24Each rectangle was uniformly shaded in the same color, but the next one has a darker shade of red.
39:36There was no outline added, but when I put it together, it looks as if this area here is darker than this area here...
39:45...as it meets the darker red on the right-hand side.
39:51Can’t do anything about it; this is how our eyes are created.
39:54So, that’s optical illusion.
39:56There is another example.
39:57These two rectangles are the same.
40:03I was pointing at these rectangles; this one and here, for you guys.
40:07These are uniformly shaded.
40:10But as I have placed this shade, behind it was a gradual shade of gray, the left part looked lighter than the right part.
40:27What does that tell you?
40:31You are going to place symbols, right, that are of the same color, and they are falling on different shades of gray...
40:41...or shades of blue.
40:43So basically what I’m telling you here is that it will not look the same.
40:49Now, if you are fortunate in your design, that you used one color and one circle like...
40:57...for instance, a red circle that you’re placing on that background, on that variable background...
41:04...and there’s one red circle in your legend, then you have no problem.
41:09But if you have two reds that you have chosen, one is a little bit darker than the other one, and you’re placing it...
41:16...on different background of shades, and remember what you do in map reading; you are looking at a symbol...
41:24...in the map body, taking your eyes to the side, to the legend, and then you are trying to find an association...
41:35...while you are remembering what you saw.
41:38And that distance is related to time and we are growing old.
41:46And if we cannot find the association fast, we have to go back and read again.
41:55These trips back and forth, the longer it takes and the more number of trips you make, you will not use that map again.
42:05So your map, if this has these qualities, you are going to have wasted your time because the map reader...
42:14...is not going to use your map.
42:17And there are these last maps too, in which when you are using slanted lines or vertical lines, these lead the eye to...
42:28...as you are reading and you see a line, or a bunch of lines, your eyes tend to go in that direction.
42:34This is how these guys in movies try to trick people to look at where they like you to look...
42:41...so that you won't see the effects that they have done.
42:45And they do it fast sometimes in these movies that, what do they call them?
42:52The adventure movies and all these like fast movies like the one from space and all that.
43:00So there are a lot of things that they do small and they enlarge it on the screen and they trick you into looking here...
43:07...rather than there, so they don't see the cables or they don't see the Starbucks on a film that was done in the...
43:15...whatever, the 200 A.D. year, or something.
43:19Things like that.
43:25When do I use patterns?
43:27You use it only for areas because when you use patterns in TIN symbology like a dot with a pattern in it...
43:35...or a line with a pattern, you cannot tell the difference.
43:40So only use it in areas.
43:42And this is only for qualitative symbology.
43:45And also consider the effects of production, especially when you right-click on your data frame...
43:52...or you right-click on the legend and convert to graphics.
43:58Once you convert to graphics, that item is not going to be linked to the data frame any more.
44:06So as you reduce it in size and enlarge it, it's not going to be the same...
44:14...excuse me. Don't drink coffee when you're teaching...
44:21...especially this colored water outside.
44:24So...Turkish coffee is better.
44:27So the problem is that when you convert to graphics, what happens is that the item that you have converted...
44:38...to graphics will lose the link to the data frame.
44:42So as you reduce it or enlarge it, it will not have any effect on the other one.
44:48So the data frame will not change.
44:50If you change the data frame, the legend is not anymore connected, and so it remains the same.
44:55So if you have converted to graphics, then what happens you use patterns, the patterns...
45:01...will not look the same, especially if one is reduced or enlarged, so they will not be the same.
45:07And this is what you want to, you want to have your legend very similar to your map body so that people...
45:15...will be benefiting from reading the legend.
45:21How legible are my symbols?
45:23Well, it depends on the size of symbols and how far are you from the map.
45:33So this is what happens.
45:35When you put your map in the Map Gallery, there are people there who are going to judge it...
45:41...especially if you say I want it to be in this category and I want to win an award?
45:46Well, next year you are going to win an award because you are here.
45:50So, what we need to do is, if the map is going to be placed on a wall, it means that I'm going to read it...
46:01...something like three to five feet away, or maybe a meter or so away.
46:05I need to design my symbols and my text to be legible at that distance.
46:13If it's being hand held, it's okay. Most of the time you can read it.
46:19But if it is placed it on a wall, you have to design it as such.
46:24Your smallest text and smallest symbol must be legible at the distance that was designed for it...
46:32...which is, in the Map Gallery, it should be at least three to four feet away, or five feet away, or maybe one meter...
46:38...to those who are metric, one meter to one meter and a half away.
46:42So, the United States should has gone metric [in] 1984.
46:51So, in the elements of cartography and part of my presentation which you are going to get by the way on the DVD...
46:59...after the conference, there will be a bunch of references.
47:04One of them is the Elements of Cartography.
47:06In one of these places in the book, there is a graph in which you can enter with how far is the distance of viewing...
47:16...and you'll end up how many point sizes your minimum size of points that you...
47:23...of the symbols, the smallest symbol that you could be using in your map.
47:27That's a very useful one.
47:30I have just given you an example.
47:32And notice that not all people have perfect vision.
47:35Remember that we test our eyes only at 20/20, and maybe every other year.
47:43So if you're looking at a map after one and a half years after you tested your eyes and got glasses, it might not work.
47:52Especially if you are after 30 years, like me. I'm 31.
47:56Oh, I’m sorry, I'm 30.
47:59Are there any specifications?
48:01Well, yes, there are.
48:02In the International Cartographic Association, there are three perceptions, thresholds, there are three thresholds.
48:10One of them is called the perception threshold, which is the legibility of the smallest detail.
48:17So the smallest detail will be if lines should not be less than .1 millimeter.
48:23For those of who are not, they don't know what millimeters are, you have to divide by 25.4 to get it in inches.
48:31...and then you have to multiply by 16, all that thing that is not easy to use.
48:39And then the points, the points should be, if it is a full point, meaning that it is all colored in, if it's a square...
48:51...it should be .5 millimeter - the minimum, .4 millimeter if it's round.
48:56If it's hollow, it should be minimum .5 millimeters, for both the square and the circle.
49:04The threshold of separation, this is the distinction between adjacent details, so I have two lines.
49:11How far they should be at that scale.
49:15It should be more than .2 millimeters.
49:20And the differentiation, they didn't put any numbers in there, they said the smallest difference...
49:27...between nearly same-size symbols.
49:31So, if you're going in graduated circles in which the circles are graduated based on the, how much is the population...
49:43...so in this case, if we have 100,000 people and 100,400, this will be a very small difference...
49:53...so your circles will be very close in size.
49:56So in this case you have the cartographic license to increase one of these circles to be a little bit larger...
50:04...so it can actually be identified.
50:14Creating visual contrast and hierarchy.
50:17Visual contract is actually why we can see, because there is contrast.
50:26So there's, in terms of differentiation, if I did not do any contrast in my symbology, like the example in here...
50:36...I just drew these two, and I know that I'm drawing for my maps land and some sea, but I did not identify them.
50:45However, I could gray the land, or I could gray the sea.
50:52In this case I have increased the contrast between the land and the water.
51:01I could also create some relative importance by adding some signs, in this case, symbology...
51:09...with larger circles and smaller circles, or lines with thinner and thicker lines.
51:15Or, I might be using variation in color value, how dark or light it is, so I am increasing the contrast between my symbology.
51:33So how do I represent names on maps?
51:37Well, I can use some qualitative symbology in my name placement.
51:46So change colors, I can change styles, I can change form, the form meaning upper/lower case...
51:53...or upper case only, or upper/lower case with a slant.
51:58My advice is never use upper case only.
52:01If I give you a book to read which is all upper case, unless you are a United States policeman or lawyer...
52:11...you will take 1.25 to 1.5 times to read it.
52:17Because we have imprints in our minds of upper/lower-case words, we don't read letters anymore, we read words.
52:26Actually, our kids, they learn how to read words more than letters, and it is easier for us - we don't, when we read...
52:33...we don't read the "T-H-E" as, oh, that's a T, an H, an E; oh, that's "the." No, we know that's...
52:40...a "the" in here, so it is easier for us.
52:45Also, reading a book is different than reading a map, because reading a book is sequential.
52:55Sometimes a word comes into a paragraph and we don't know what it is.
52:59How many know what serendipity is?
53:02It should be 10 percent only.
53:04Always doesn't fail.
53:07Serendipity, by the way, it's also about the Indians. This is a good thing about the British.
53:16The British took a guide named Serendip with them as a guide, and this guide discovered something...
53:23...that the British were not looking for.
53:25That's what serendipity is, by the way.
53:27So now you've learned one more word for your Scrabble game, if you will.
53:33So if you are reading this word in a paragraph and you didn't know what it is and you still understood...
53:39...what the paragraph is all about, you're in the airplane, it's okay; you went and you continued reading.
53:45In a map, you are looking for that word that you want to know where to go to.
53:52Like for instance I was given directions to go to La Jolla, to exit on La Jolla Village Drive.
53:59That was my first month in California.
54:06So I was driving and went there, invited to a friend's house.
54:11And I went around, around, around.
54:13I couldn't find La Jolla Village Drive because the guy gave me the directions on the phone.
54:19And so I stepped out of the car and called him and I said, "Where are you?
54:26I have just exited a La Jolla Village Drive."
54:30Yeah, yeah, yeah! Same thing.
54:32No, it is not the same thing!
54:33I am reading the thing, and you are telling me La Jolla.
54:36It's two different things.
54:38So you don't, you're going to a foreign country in which you do not know the spelling of and the pronunciation of these names.
54:46A lot of our troops went to Iraq, for instance, and they were given a map that has "Dijla" on it, or "Tigris" on it.
54:56Well, if you ask the locals, Where is the Tigris River, they won't tell you where it is because they don't know...
55:02...they're sitting next to it.
55:04They know what Dijla is, but not Tigris.
55:06This is why the United States went in 1980s, they started using local names like Beijing instead of Peking...
55:14...and Mumbai instead of Bombay, and so on.
55:19So, these are important if you do not know Spanish.
55:26Yes, so this was important to tell you because I have seen a lot of maps that are all upper case...
55:34...thinking that this is an important place.
55:37Well guess what, I cannot read.
55:41It's like Jack Dangermond when he said in the Plenary Session, I'm not going even to...
55:47...attempt to read that city in Iceland where they had the eruption.
55:53Remember? I wouldn't attempt to.
55:57So, quantitative. I can also use place-names in quantitative type of situations where I could use...
56:05...like for instance, San Diego, larger and Redlands is smaller, because San Diego is larger than Redlands.
56:15And in terms of form I can use different types of form, upper case, lower case, or...
56:23...change the different form of the text to make quantitative type, like for instance, I would use upper case only...
56:33...which I don't like but it happens in a lot of specifications now that they use upper case only...
56:39...and then use lower case or upper/lower case combination.
56:42That's the second thing that you could use.
56:45By the way, when you see this arrow, it means use this first, then this, then that, then that.
56:52Color value, differences in color value, you can use it also for quantitative types, but it is the weaker...
57:01...the third weaker, compared to the one on the left.
57:05And then color, differences in color, like for instance, based on the electromagnetic wavelength...
57:14...which is the red first, then green, then blue.
57:17You can use that one, but this is the weakest choice for quantitative differences.
57:25There are some legibility issues, like the text color versus background color.
57:31So I am drawing a dark line, a dark...
57:53Can you hear me?
58:00I did electrical engineering, one course in Home Depot.
58:13So, I'm drawing a dark blue line on a black background.
58:22No matter how long I draw it to make it more distinct, it will not be distinct.
58:30So that was an "I."
58:33So any test that we are placing is going to be placed on several background colors.
58:36...several different color backgrounds.
58:39You see, one color text for all the names that you're going to place, but they're going to be placed on...
58:49You have to think about which color to use that will have enough contrast with these backgrounds. Very important.
58:57And I talked about upper case/lower case, and no fancy...I love Old English style.
59:02In fact, I learned 60 different lettering styles way back when I was one year old, in the '60s, and the one that I loved most...
59:13...is the Old English, and I did all my Christmas cards with it, but I will never use it in my maps...
59:19...because not everyone knows how to read Old English, and of course I do all these intricate kinds of calligraphy.
59:28But, don't use it in my maps.
59:32Here is my family.
59:35Jack and Laura are my friends.
59:39Jackville and Lauraville.
59:40This is my name, and this is my daughter's name, my son's name, my sister's name.
59:48There are only three Shirleys in Baghdad, by the way.
59:51One of them was my sister and Shirley Temple was in the United States.
59:55So readability issues. In the United States, this is what they use, normally.
1:00:02Your first choice of placing the name relative to a point is in the upper right position.
1:00:09If there is no space, then you go to the lower right.
1:00:16If there's no space there, see how crowded it is, then you use the upper left.
1:00:22If there is no space then you go to the lower left.
1:00:26And then, if all fails, then you go above, then below.
1:00:31Never put the name on the same line, because it can add an "o" to the beginning or the end of...
1:00:39...and it can mean different meanings in other languages.
1:00:46Placing names along lines.
1:00:48Notice the Mississippi here is placed at an ambiguous location, because I don't know if the...
1:00:55...Mississippi is going to flow this way or that way. I don't know.
1:00:59So in that case I would move the Mississippi at the intersection so that I would not have any ambiguity.
1:01:08There is an article which has 25 pages in the American Cartographer about place-names.
1:01:19Don't be frightened about 25 pages, they're all graphics, about where to place, where not to place.
1:01:26This is done by Professor Imhof, who is a Swiss cartographer. They are best cartographers in the world.
1:01:35And so he has done all these do's and don't's, and you can read it, and it is part of my presentation...
1:01:44...as well in the, listed at the end of my presentation.
1:01:54Now, in terms of contours, the software, what it does, it will pick up the midpoint of the contour line...
1:02:04...and then place the text in that direction, how it was digitized.
1:02:09Whether it was digitized that way or that way, it will place it.
1:02:12So you will get something like this.
1:02:15What you should be using, actually, is a virtual line that will be perpendicular to a bunch of lines...
1:02:23...and this is where you place your labels for the contours.
1:02:29In Maplex...how many of you have Maplex?
1:02:32How many of you have ArcInfo and don't know they have Maplex? You have it. By default you have it.
1:02:39If you haven't used it, it has 140 different rules that you can set.
1:02:44It will at least give you a solution for maybe 60 percent of your headaches of labeling.
1:02:52And then you turn everything into annotation later on, and then you fix the remainder that you want to fix...
1:02:59...to make it a very legible map, a useful map.
1:03:04I am holding a map and I am reading an English map, or map in the English language, not necessarily English. Could be American.
1:03:16So, the way I place my text for easy reading, I need to look at all the text that are, especially vertical.
1:03:25The ones that are horizontal should always be read easily horizontally.
1:03:28But the ones that are on the left should be read from bottom up.
1:03:34Anything on the right should be from top to bottom.
1:03:38Anyone who speaks Arabic here?
1:03:41You should change the direction, okay?
1:03:46And the description is not backwards.
1:03:50Backwards is a relative term.
1:03:52So, what map elements do I use?
1:03:56Oops, bad statement. I did not put "use" at the end.
1:04:06It's not my fault. It's actually the fault of giving us a new template in which everything is scrambled.
1:04:12You think that you can move things, it doesn't work.
1:04:15You can fix it; yes, thank you.
1:04:19While he is fixing it, these are the different types of elements that you can put.
1:04:25I'm not saying that every map should have it.
1:04:30Notice, if you are creating a map that is population density, and what did I say population density earlier...
1:04:40...what kind of projection you would use?
1:04:45Now, is the equal area projection, does it have the scale correct everywhere on the map?
1:04:55I am assuming it's a small-scale map, so it's a larger extent.
1:05:01And the answer starts with "n." No, it's not the same everywhere.
1:05:06So, basically if you are creating a map that is of this type, which is an equal area projection...
1:05:15...which is a population density map, there's no need to put a scale bar in it...
1:05:20...because it is not correct everywhere.
1:05:23There's no need to put it.
1:05:25Do you have to put north arrow on every map?
1:05:31No, but if you are going to get fired, then I would place a small one, gray, not black, which means...
1:05:41...that you don't put a high contrast on it, and put it discreetly because how many times...
1:05:46...you would use the north arrow on a map?
1:05:49Starts with an "o." Once.
1:05:52Once you orientate yourself, you don't use it anymore, so it's a secondary thing.
1:05:57The main thing is your map body.
1:06:00This is where you should be attracting attention to.
1:06:03This leads us to visual balance.
1:06:07They gave thousands of people maps and they looked at their eyes, where they fall the first 10 seconds.
1:06:16And guess what? It falls on a place which is about 5 percent above the geometric center of the map...
1:06:26...the 5 percent of the height of the map, and the geometric center is the intersection of the corners.
1:06:34If you draw lines at the intersection of the corners, you get the geometric center.
1:06:39They discover that they would look at a point which is 5 percent above it.
1:06:44What does this tell you?
1:06:51Put the main map here! Exactly! Unless you are in Florida...
1:06:57...where the panhandle pushes to the right, pushes the mainland to the right, but what can we do?
1:07:05They can split that portion and give it to somebody else.
1:07:11So, what visual balance means is that I have to place my map body there and then there are some...
1:07:18...other graphic elements that are going to the place, which we call them cartographic elements...
1:07:21...or map elements or map objects...whatever the case. What's in a name.
1:07:26So, we are going to place all these items and we are going to move them around and each one of these items...
1:07:35...will have a visual weight.
1:07:37This visual weight depends on the size of the item; the value, which is how dark or light it is; and the brilliance...
1:07:45...how bright it is; and how close it is to the edge.
1:07:49Of course, all map readers in the English language would start from the top right, and then - or...
1:07:55...top left, sorry - and then they move their eyes this way.
1:08:00So, by default, they would do the same in map reading and whatever you put in the right-hand side will have more weight.
1:08:11They will get attracted very fast because we will get into your map with your eyes on the upper left within a...
1:08:18...fraction of seconds, and then you'd concentrate here, and then anything that attracts you here...
1:08:25...you will immediately move your eye to that location.
1:08:29So, you should not put visually heavy objects here.
1:08:34No dark things, no large things on the right-hand side, especially in the lower right.
1:08:42And what about gaps?
1:08:45People are just afraid of a gap in a map.
1:08:46So, what they do, they throw in a north arrow, throw in a scale bar, throw in a ship...
1:08:54...and enlarge those because there's the gap!
1:08:57Well guess what? You don't need to be afraid of the gap.
1:09:02But keep the gaps at the top of the map rather than at the bottom.
1:09:04With this in mind there's a test for you.
1:09:06You think you don't have tests in this?
1:09:09It's not leisure anymore.
1:09:11This is not a complete map; this is my disclosure.
1:09:16And, you are not allowed to add anything to it, and no one of these maps are correct, or is correct.
1:09:25So, which one is the most visually balanced, based on what I just said a few minutes ago?
1:09:34Please be brave!
1:09:40How 2-C? You didn't listen well, you ate too much at dinner, at lunchtime.
1:09:47I said, no gaps at the bottom.
1:09:501-B, 1-B. What did you eat?
1:09:59[inaudible audience response]
1:10:02This actually rotates to the left.
1:10:05This rotates to the right.
1:10:07This rotates to the right, to the left.
1:10:10This one here is more close to the visual center which is why you guys said, but you forgot about the other part.
1:10:22So this one here is further away from the visual center, but remember I said no one of them is right.
1:10:31But I also said you should not put gaps at the bottom.
1:10:34So this one would be the one that you should have chosen.
1:10:37Now this is another map, more complicated.
1:10:41The one on the left is my teenage boy's room, and this is my room.
1:10:48This one on the left is my artistic part of me, and the one on the right is my engineering, dull part of me.
1:10:58Which one is more visually balanced, based on what I've told you?
1:11:03Notice the main map is at the visual center.
1:11:08You should choose...How many choose B? Be brave.
1:11:13Yes, yes, good, excellent.
1:11:28Okay, now don't think yourself as an American when you're looking at this map, or British for all that matter.
1:11:37Which one is more visually balanced, whether it is A or B?
1:11:45How many would say B?
1:11:47I just told you, don't think like an American, because you always think that the scale, the legend...
1:11:55...should be on the right-hand side.
1:11:57This is why you chose B.
1:11:58You forgot about that this thing here is very far away from the visual center, compared to this one which is very close...
1:12:06...and you forgot the gap in here which is lost between the visuals that are in here.
1:12:13This is why on the left-hand side is more visually balanced, but we are used to the legend on the right...
1:12:22...which can be fixed, right?
1:12:24All you need to do is push this to the right, pick this spot here, and put it up there, done.
1:12:32So, this is how you should be thinking about balancing your different objects and you try...
1:12:37...to attract attention to the main map body.
1:12:41This is why we are talking about this visual balance.
1:12:44Now, there are several factors that control our design.
1:12:48In two minutes my presentation should have finished, but I am entertaining you as much as I want...
1:12:57...because I told the Map Gallery I am coming back at 5:00.
1:13:01So I have half an hour for you guys.
1:13:03[audience question] I was fired, right?
1:13:04Yes, you were.
1:13:09So for those of you who are going to leave, there are some evaluation sheets that the administration here...
1:13:16...wants you to fill it up for us so that we know whether we're going to have this next year or not. Same jokes.
1:13:25This is, by the way, my 18th year of presenting this.
1:13:28Can you imagine?
1:13:30An 18th year, I have people here who are enjoying this. Thank you very much.
1:13:36So, what factor's controlling my design?
1:13:40Well, there are several that would.
1:13:42One of them is the objective.
1:13:44Map form - is it portrait? Is it landscape?
1:13:51Is it folded?
1:13:52Am I going...is it going to be centerfolded?
1:13:57And all these different things - is it going to be round, or square, or rectangle, or whatever the case may be?
1:14:03So this would actually control how I would design.
1:14:07Second one, my audience.
1:14:09If I am going to design a map for the highly technical committee in which they want to know...
1:14:17...whether...they want to know whether to place the landfill on a montmorillonite clay...
1:14:37...with a slope of less than 15 percent or with a certain type of zoning and a certain type of land use and away...
1:14:46...from local streets within half a mile distance, then what kind of design would I be creating for them?
1:14:59I should be placing all these different...The polygon that I will be selecting would have to fit all those...
1:15:10...and I have to show in that map for the highly technical committee that it is actually fulfilled.
1:15:19However, if I am passing this to the general public to vote on where to place the landfill, what does the...
1:15:26...general public need from, in the map?
1:15:30How far are they away?
1:15:33So basically the polygon and probably the street centerlines of the main ones only.
1:15:39So my map for them would be much simpler than for the highly technical committee.
1:15:44Reality and authenticity. Well, I told you about the meandering river, the crooked coastline of Norway...
1:15:52...should remain crooked when you actually create the map for them.
1:15:58Generalization and skill. They are both working together to create...they control the quantity...
1:16:04...of information that you can place in the map.
1:16:07Also the technical limits which will dictate the quality of your map.
1:16:14Remember I talked about the 16.7 million colors and 256 that you have on the printer, so you're limited.
1:16:23And conditions of hues.
1:16:26Is it going to be in a dark place or in the light?
1:16:29Like, for instance when you're picking up your car from the car rental, you will be generously given a map.
1:16:37This map is useless.
1:16:39Most of the time it's useless, because you're driving at 9 p.m., it's dark, and they gave you this tiny text and...
1:16:48...with very little contrast between the text and the background, and they're expecting us to dash...
1:16:53...at 65 miles an hour and read it.
1:16:56I normally sit down there and for 10 minutes and I'm sure Jorge does that the same, but he's fired anyway.
1:17:03So...and redraw it so that I can make use of it.
1:17:08North is not true everywhere on a map; depends on the projection.
1:17:15So this is Mollweide projection.
1:17:16Notice this is only correct at the line that goes through Greenwich, that's it.
1:17:24Elsewhere, it's curved.
1:17:26In the United States we use the conical projection so much, so the north arrow...
1:17:31...is not correct anywhere in the map anytime you use conical projection.
1:17:36And this is where I was teaching in Florida one time.
1:17:39Anyone from Florida? They're nice people.
1:17:43They gave me this map to look at and I said, oh, are these doghouses?
1:17:47And they said, no, no, no, this is a map that we give to our policemen to divide themselves on the different beats...
1:17:58...where, like different neighborhoods.
1:18:00And I said, no, not according to scale. Oh my God.
1:18:06And then I realized, and this wasn't their fault, it was a bug in the ArcView 2 software that we had.
1:18:12We go from beta view to layout view, then you decide, oh, I want to make changes, so we go to data view.
1:18:20It uses the projection. I don't know why, but they fixed it, anyway.
1:18:24So, but they didn't realize that this was happening, and so from then on, I gave my students...
1:18:33...I teach at university...the meanest scale, 5,137,603, and I would like them to manually draw a scale bar...
1:18:45...with easy-to-use divisions, and then I would tell them to, when you're done, go to your computers and create the map...
1:18:56...of the United States and just bring it in and bring your...go to layout view and insert your scale bar...
1:19:05...and make a scale bar with the same divisions and the same intervals, and check yours against it.
1:19:13This is how you check the software that we are creating is correct.
1:19:18You have to do the same thing, by the way.
1:19:20Don't believe in the software all the time.
1:19:23And, is it easy to use?
1:19:25Well, how do you read these scale bars?
1:19:33Well, I am in the outside in the open.
1:19:40I have my shoestring.
1:19:42I can take it and measure a distance on that map and then take it, and I'm not going to embarrass anyone in the crowd...
1:19:49...here as why there's something on the left-hand side from the zero in the other direction.
1:19:55So, I would go from the zero and try to read here.
1:19:59Then I say okay, this is 700; this one, 1,400. That's not easy to, I have to use a calculator...
1:20:02No, no, no, nothing to do with metric here.
1:20:05...but I have this on the left so what I do is I move that here and that's what this is for.
1:20:12This is 700 and this is what I need to pick up from this subdivision in there.
1:20:18Well, guess what? How many of you can find out in the field, without a calculator, and if you're not my age...
1:20:32...30 years old, how to divide 7 by 5?
1:20:41Right? My kids will definitely go to their cell phones and try to do that.
1:20:48So this is not an easy-to-use scale bar.
1:20:51What you should have done is what, anyone? Volunteer.
1:20:56By now you should know me.
1:20:58It's an easy-to-use...
1:21:04It so happens, it's in meters, but it doesn't matter.
1:21:10Have seven subdivisions on the left.
1:21:12Or better, make your main divisions up to five.
1:21:19So, you go to 500, 1,000 instead of 7,000, 700, 1,400.
1:21:25If you don't know how to do it, go downstairs and somebody will show you how.
1:21:29And if they, if you don't see anybody, come to the map...
1:21:41So, come to the Map Critique Station and I'll show you.
1:21:45The other thing is, I am now creating this kind of a map, which is a classification map.
1:21:53I'm classifying my data into five categories.
1:21:55Each category is a range of data.
1:22:00The minute I do that, what am I doing?
1:22:03Starts with "g" and has a "z" at the end somewhere.
1:22:09It has an "n," an "r." Generalization. I am doing generalization.
1:22:14And if I'm doing a generalization, what are these decimal places doing in my generalization?
1:22:20No need, really, there is no need for generalization in this case.
1:22:26But, because the software does it, you keep it.
1:22:30You should not keep it.
1:22:32And there is a way, and if they don't show you downstairs, come and I'll show you.
1:22:37And maps for screen displays.
1:22:40This is where, this is my saddest slide because anything that I teach in the software that you need to do...
1:22:49...which is advanced drawing options, using multiple layer symbols, using picture symbols, using...
1:22:55...dashed lines and patterns, dot density, halos, and complex statements, SQL statements for text.
1:23:02All this that I like to do, I have to avoid because of performance, because you are putting your map and people...
1:23:11...who want to look at your map, they need to look at it fast, and they cannot do it because they have to wait...
1:23:18...for all these things to calculate and grow.
1:23:21Well, guess what?
1:23:23I finally discovered that you could do something else.
1:23:27Not really finally; it was two years ago.
1:23:30That you could do what is called image flattening.
1:23:37What is image flattening?
1:23:38Meaning that all these things that have been placed on the screen with all these things, what you could do is...
1:23:45...you could save that to an image instead.
1:23:50And when you save it to an image, all the things that you have, that has been calculated...
1:23:56...is now captured in a raster format and now we have got one image.
1:24:00Unless you are trying to serve layers; that's a different issue.
1:24:09...could use, and therefore you can have, now we have one layer to serve instead of several different things...
1:24:15...happening and wait forever to display.
1:24:19Finally, think of your user when you are creating your map.
1:24:23And this is available for you, the presentation's available for you, and this is the different references I have placed for you...
1:24:36...and if people would like to stay, we could critique a map together.
1:24:41I'm here! Anyone would like to stay.
1:24:46There is a bad map that we created.
1:24:49I'll give you 30 seconds to look at it, and then you can tell me what's wrong with it.
1:25:02I'll help you.
1:25:04When you looked at the map, what attracted you most?
1:25:08[inaudible audience response]
1:25:09Maine. Maine, right?
1:25:14And what is the theme of the map?
1:25:18It's about the Gulf of St. Lawrence, right?
1:25:23But you look at Maine first.
1:25:27Isn't that sad?
1:25:29That's one of the things that, one of the problems.
1:25:33And you mentioned, the province names are in upper case.
1:25:38And what else?
1:25:41The expressway, what about it?
1:25:43[inaudible audience response]
1:25:45It's too thick, and it's in red, and it attracts you most.
1:25:50And was that the Gulf of St. Lawrence?
1:25:53No? What else?
1:25:58Two scale bars.
1:26:00I am not against two scale bars, but look at the scale bars, what about them?
1:26:10What is it?
1:26:11[inaudible audience response]
1:26:15These are different units, yes.
1:26:16So, people, because remember these are Canadians, they need metric, and we are the United States, we need the miles.
1:26:29Look at my hands.
1:26:32Align the zeroes so you can compare things.
1:26:36Okay, now what else?
1:26:40North arrow, what about it?
1:26:43[inaudible audience response]
1:26:45It's the second thing after, yeah, that's right, the second thing that can attract you.
1:26:49First of all, it has a border.
1:26:53Here's a clue for you that I didn't talk about, because this is what we teach in the longer course.
1:27:03Do not put hurdles, graphic hurdles, in the eye of the reader who's trying to get somewhere to read.
1:27:09Any border you put on any secondary element is a hurdle.
1:27:14So, your legend should not have a hurdle.
1:27:17It should not have a hurdle: that means no border for the legend.
1:27:20Should not have the word "legend" in it!
1:27:24I mean, the word "legend" is only for engineers and surveyors.
1:27:29I happen to be an engineer, I know that.
1:27:32So, you don't need the word "legend."
1:27:36And you do not need the words "map of."
1:27:40It's already a map, we know that.
1:27:42Why do we need a "map of" by the top?
1:27:46What about the logo?
1:27:49[inaudible audience response]
1:27:51Logo. No, they changed it. You're fired. They changed it, even.
1:28:04For one thing, if I want to draw that logo I would draw it, first of all, starts with the letter "s." Smaller.
1:28:12Second, has to do with... well, outside the map would be where outside the map?
1:28:20I wouldn't put it at the top because it's not that important.
1:28:23[inaudible audience response]
1:28:25No Esri people here, so it's okay.
1:28:29It should be somewhere discreet, unless you are advertising yourself.
1:28:33Some of you guys would be advertising yourself in here, because you want some business or something...
1:28:38...you would enlarge the logo.
1:28:39That's fine. It's business type.
1:28:42But there's no need to make it large.
1:28:45And third is, even if you want to keep it there, at least the background should be the same background as the land, not two...
1:28:57I don't need to look at two colors there because it's attracting too much attention there. So...
1:29:08And also the land does not have a wet coast, so there should be a line that is dark blue for the coastline.
1:29:20There's no coastline, just land and sea.
1:29:25The coastline is inundated, remember.
1:29:28You should symbolize it as such, so you should have a dark blue coastline.
1:29:34So this is an example of one of the attempts to fix the problem.
1:29:39I still don't like what I see up here, but this is one of the attempts.
1:29:47This is a second attempt in which we focus on...notice in the previous one, we did not focus on the...
1:29:55...Gulf of St. Lawrence; there's a lot of things, there's a lot of land involved.
1:30:00Here, I focused on, I enlarged it, and notice this is now my center.
1:30:08So these are different techniques of...and notice, no border.
1:30:15You still can read it. So...
1:30:16And no red!
1:30:22Unfortunately we cannot delete it, because it's theirs, unless they give it to the Canadians. Then we...
1:30:29...don't have a problem, but that's a political issue, we don't discuss that.
1:30:33But it has to be there because it's theirs, and it is subdued; it's not like as it used to be.
1:30:42So, here it's in green, they would think that the United States is greener than ...
1:30:50...but you can look at the difference.
1:30:55Well, thank you so much for your attention and for staying for a longer period of time.
Basic Principles of Cartographic Design
This session introduces the basic principles of map design to those with no formal cartographic training. Learn how to create maps with meaningful symbology that is easily deciphered and quickly captures the eye. The session will stress the communication channel between the map designer and the map reader, andwhat you should and shouldn’t do in map design for both paper and digital media. Some cartography issues will be discussed, but the main objective is to teach you how to create better maps.
- Recorded: Jul 1st, 2010
- Runtime: 1:31:01
- Views: 116870
- Published: Aug 25th, 2010
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