00:01Let me introduce myself. My name is Agatha Wong.
00:04I work in the geocoding development and products group...
00:09...that we've been developing geocoding, start from Arc... ArcView and then ArcGIS and now we go to ArcGIS 10.
00:19And I'll let Miriam introduce herself.
00:22This presentation is covering the basics, geocoding parcels...
00:28...and then we have another workshop right after this one.
00:30We'll go dive in to the geocoding engines.
00:33So this one is basically showing you how to use ArcGIS 10 to process your address and to find locations.
00:46And then at the end, I will answer some questions...
00:49...and if you have more questions, yes, we... we will have plenty of time for you...
00:53...to answer your question or to help you out with your geocoding issues.
00:59You see the assistants is passing out the evaluation forms, and we will appreciate you to fill out the form at the end...
01:06...and you can drop it off at the box next to the escalator and outside maybe in the reception areas.
01:14So I could pass the time to Miriam.
01:18All right, thank you, Agatha.
01:20Can you hear me also in the back very well? Okay.
01:26All right. My name is Miriam Schmidts.
01:28I'm an instructor at Esri Educational Services which means we teach classes there.
01:34We teach... We offer classes to our customers to client sides, and I teach most of the desktop classes that we have...
01:43...the foundation series, Desktop 1, 2, 3; Data Production and Editing Techniques; Performing Analysis...
01:50...and recently also got started with ArcGIS Server, so that's another whole different, exciting field...
01:58...also when it comes to geocoding.
02:00But what we want to do today here is talk about geocoding with ArcGIS Desktop.
02:05That's the foundation for all our address processing...
02:10...and give everybody a very solid foundation of the basics of geocoding.
02:15So this is the geocoding introduction workshop.
02:19Following, after this, Agatha will get, will give the advanced geocoding workshop right in this same room. Okay?
02:29So let's get started.
02:31Here's our agenda for today.
02:34First of all, I want to give everybody the basics.
02:37I want to cover what is geocoding and what are the components that we need for geocoding.
02:43And then we also go into the geocoding workflow...
02:47...what tools we use in which situations...
02:50...and what are the parameters that we use in these tools that we fill in so everything runs smoothly.
02:58In the end, I will cover, for a few minutes, I will cover automating techniques for geocoding...
03:05...because we have a couple of tools in our soft that... software that can help you save a lot of time...
03:12...and maybe run your geocoding overnight.
03:15So that's something that might be interesting for some of you...
03:18...especially when it comes to geocoding thousands or even millions of addresses.
03:24You don't want to wait for that anymore.
03:27All right. So let's get started right away.
03:31Let's get started with a map.
03:33That's what it's all about, right?
03:35We have this fictitious town here, ArcTown USA, USA with Lake Esri.
03:42And you see here in ArcTown we have streets and the lines on our map.
03:49They are labeled with a name, with the street names and then you also see they are labeled on each side of the street...
03:57...with the house number range, with a starting and the end house number.
04:03These are separate attribute fields in the attribute table, right?
04:07We all know that the labels must come from the attribute table.
04:10These are fields that we use for labeling in the attribute table.
04:15Now the goal is to take some addresses and put them as points on the map.
04:21And if you look at this first address here, 150 Main Street West.
04:27If you look at the map, you're probably now trying to find Main Street West.
04:35And now you probably look at the house number ranges.
04:40You're trying to find 150, right?
04:42So if you place the point about here, where the green dot is, then you've done nothing else than geocoding...
04:50...geocoding in your mind.
04:52And that's exactly what the computer does when we start our geocoding process.
04:58It finds the right street segment.
05:00In fact, all these streets, they are broken up into separate features for each block...
05:07...so we have separate features in our data layer to find the right street feature, to find the right house number range...
05:16...and then along the house number range, the software interpolates where along the line about the plot point would be...
05:25...in this case, about halfway along the line.
05:29That's geocoding, placing addresses on the street, on a street map or on a map in general...
05:38...by comparing them against some kind of reference data.
05:42In our case here, our street centerlines are our reference data.
05:47Now most of the time, that turns out very well, but sometimes, well, the computer has difficulties.
05:54So for example, if you look at the second address here, 205 Main Street...
06:01...we just learned that there's a Main Street West and a Main Street East, right?
06:05So which of the two Main Streets is this address on?
06:06...we had the house number ranges on both sides of the street centerlines...
06:10We don't know, and the computer doesn't know, either.
06:12So what it does, it gives us candidates.
06:15It gives us a candidate here, it gives us a candidate for West Main Street and one for East Main Street...
06:22...and it's up to us to make the decision, well, which of the two candidates is the right one?
06:29It's a tied situa-... situation here.
06:33And then, well, hopefully, that doesn't happen too often.
06:36Sometimes, the geocoder, the geocoding doesn't work because, well, the information is just not there in the reference data.
06:47If you look here at 105 Grand Avenue, you might be finding Grand Avenue here right on the right edge of the map...
06:57...well, there are no house number ranges in the reference data.
07:02Cities, they grow very rapidly these days, right?
07:04So it might be that whole subdivision have, subdivisions have not been entered yet into your reference data...
07:11... and then, of course, the software cannot compare correctly against the reference data...
07:18...and we end up with some unmatched addresses.
07:22In fact, we do have techniques to handle these kinds of situations.
07:25We can go back and manually match these unmatched addresses. And there are also automated... automated ways to do that.
07:34We will cover that at, later on in this presentation, as well.
07:39All right. So here we have the out-of-the-box definition of geocoding, straight from our ArcGIS Desktop Help.
07:49What is geocoding?
07:50It's an... it's a GIS operation to transform a description of a location...
07:58...such as a pair of coordinates, an address, a name of a place.
08:06You see, it's not always addresses.
08:08It can be an x,y location or it can be a, just a place-name description.
08:14We take that location description and place it as a location on the map as a point.
08:23So geocoding, while most of the time we will geocode addresses, but we will see, we have also techniques...
08:29...how we can take place-names and geocode them, x,y locations, ZIP Codes...
08:35...all this, any description of a location we can geocode.
08:40There are three common ways to do geocoding.
08:43What people most of the time think of when it comes to geocoding, it's interactive geocoding.
08:49We just type in an address, we get a point in return, and this is all we want.
08:54The interactive way, everybody, I think, has done that before.
08:59But that doesn't work so well if we have hundreds or thousands of addresses.
09:04In this case, we might want to feed an entire table of addresses...
09:08... into some sort of geocoding engine and get a layer or a feature class back of points back in return.
09:18That's what we call batch geocoding, and I'm going to show you that one in the first software demonstration right away. Okay?
09:26And the third one, that's a very interesting technique.
09:29That's called reverse geocoding where we click on the map, we click on the map and get an address in return...
09:39...the closest street address to the location where we just clicked.
09:44There's a tool for it on our geocoding toolbar that I'm going to show you, and I'll show you how that works, as well.
09:50It's very interesting when it comes to, when it comes to fixing unmatched addresses.
09:59You had a question?
10:00[Audience question] If I have a series of points, can I get, is there a batch reverse geocoding?
10:04Is there a batch reverse geocode?
10:17Sorry about that!
10:21Okay. Yes, ArcGIS 10 introduce a new geocoding tool called Reverse Geocode.
10:27It's the geoprocessing tool, so and we will show you a little bit later in the second workshop.
10:33That's for the advanced one.
10:35Thank you, Agatha.
10:40How about that?
10:41Let me, let's hold your questions in a little later so that we don't get to switch the mike and hurt your ears.
10:47Yeah, let's keep the questions to the end, all right?
10:51Well, without further ado, let me show you how all this works.
10:55Let's go back here into ArcMap and see how all this, all these techniques work.
11:05You see I have a map document set up here for San Diego.
11:09Here we are in beautiful San Diego.
11:13And you see I've added a couple of basemaps from ArcGIS Online.
11:18I just want to have some good ref-, some good background data to show here.
11:25And I also have a streets layer, a street centerline layer, but I'm not going to use it for now.
11:30I'm going to use that only in the second demonstration later on.
11:34What I want to show you for now is how we can quick and easy, first of all, interactively do some geocoding...
11:42... and also, also how we can do some batch geocoding.
11:47So here we are on our Geocoding toolbar, and you see here on the Geocoding toolbar...
11:53...I have a field, I have a field where I can just type in my address.
11:59And I don't know how many of you know the street address here of the convention center.
12:04It's known as the convention center but the street address is triple-1 West Harbor Drive...
12:13...and we're in San Diego, we're in California.
12:16You see, I'm not separating the address elements by any commas or any other separators, and it's also not case sensitive.
12:25When I press Enter on my keyboard here, you see, it flashes the location in the map.
12:33It gives me a nice visual feedback in form of a ToolTip here.
12:37And if I right-click on it, you see a context menu comes up where I get different options.
12:45For example, I can take a closer look, I can zoom to the location, I can right-click again here...
12:53...and maybe add a labeled callout, so different ways how we can mark the location that we interactively geocoded here.
13:03And this technique is really meant for quick and straightforward, quick and easy geocoding of one single address.
13:12But what if we have a whole table of addresses?
13:16So if I switch over here to my List by Source view, this is new in ArcGIS 10...
13:21...we have the different buttons here on the top of the table of contents.
13:25If I list by source, you see, I have a table of San Diego restaurants.
13:32I don't know how many of you can think of lunch already, but...
13:36...we are all, most of us, we are geographers, we're well prepared.
13:38We want to see things on the map, right?
13:42So we have this table of addresses, different options for lunch, and we have a separate field.
13:50Here you see for the address information, the city, the state, and the ZIP.
13:55So I'm going to take this table and geocode it.
14:00The easiest way to do that is, is just right-clicking on the table, in the table of contents and say geocode addresses.
14:11You see it asks me to choose an address locator.
14:15We will talk about address locators later on.
14:18For now, I am just going to use one of the automatically referenced ones here.
14:23You see the software automatically references a North America geocode service from ArcGIS Online...
14:30...and I'm going to use that one.
14:33Click OK. It will come up with a dialog here, and you see, there's some field matching going on now.
14:42The geocoding service now looks at the address table and tries to find some crucial information in this table.
14:51It wants to find the street information, which is, you see, in the address field.
14:55It automatically picks that up because I used some... some standard field names here...
15:02...and it also automatically finds the city, the state, and the ZIP fields.
15:07Sometimes you have to go in and rematch that manually, but most of the time it really picks it up.
15:14Further down here in the dialog, you see the output shapefile or feature class.
15:19It defaults to the default geodatabase that I've set for this map document.
15:25This is a new concept in ArcGIS 10 that can, that you can set a default geodatabase for every map document that you create.
15:33This is the database that you work most of the time with, where most of your data are, and this is where all of the outputs default to.
15:42So you see right now, I have a San Diego geodatabase at, set as a default, and I'm just going to call my output Restaurants. Okay?
15:53We're not going into the options here.
15:55We take care of that later on.
15:58I just want to show you quickly how it works.
16:00I click OK and you see the geocoding runs.
16:04Hundred percent of the addresses were matched.
16:07That's really the ideal case.
16:09I can close this dialog and you see here, I have my geocoding results.
16:17A new point layer has been added to the table of contents...
16:21...and you see if I zoom to it, here are all my restaurants in the San Diego Gaslamp Quarter.
16:29I took, only took the ones that are walking distance from here.
16:32And if I symbolize them nicely, I can see them a little better, I could do anything I wanted to with this layer now.
16:41I can label it, anything I wanted to.
16:44So that's batch geocoding, taking a table of addresses and geocode it.
16:50Now last but not least, what I want to show you also is that reverse geocoding.
16:56Remember, reverse geocoding, clicking a map and getting an address in return.
17:02So there's one button here on the Geocoding toolbar, it's called the Address Inspector.
17:08And if I activate that and click the map, you see if I keep my mouse button down...
17:14...I get the closest address to the location where my mouse pointer is just placed.
17:22And this is really great for exploring an area, if you want to find out maybe what's wrong with an unmatched address.
17:29What's the address range in a particular block?
17:33Very handy when it comes to exploring your data.
17:36So address locator, Address Inspector button on the Geocoding toolbar.
17:44All right. So let's go back, let's go back to the presentation and...
17:51...talk a little bit more about the components that we need for geocoding.
17:55In fact, we have identified already quite a few of them.
17:58Definitely, we want to end up with features on the map.
18:02These are our points.
18:04And you've also seen already the table of addresses that we feed into our geocoding...
18:09...so that we can get a whole point layer in return.
18:14Now in the center of all of this is the address locator.
18:18The address locator is the main tool that we use to do our geocoding...
18:24...and we will see in quite, in a little bit what exactly an address locator is.
18:29You see, we have several address locator styles that are built into the software.
18:36There are different...
18:37We can build address locators in different ways, depending on what kind of addresses we want to geocode.
18:44For example, there are different address formats in the U.S., right?
18:48We have the standard format with address, city, state and ZIP.
18:56But then we have, like, in other areas in the U.S., we have alphanumeric addresses, we have hyphenated addresses...
19:04... and not to mention at all the situation where we want to geocode place-names...
19:09...or if we want to geocode x,y locations or ZIP Codes.
19:14So we do need different types of address locators for all these kinds of different location descriptions that we want to geocode.
19:24And that's what the address locator styles are for.
19:27They come with the software.
19:28We don't have to build them ourselves.
19:33All right. And, oh, one more thing.
19:35Depending on what kind, what kind of reference data I want to use, what kind of address data I have...
19:44...the different types of address or location data will require different types of reference data.
19:51So for example, if I have addresses, I might want to use street centerlines or some cities even have address points.
20:00For each individual house, they have an address point.
20:04You can use that as reference data.
20:06Or if you think of another situation, maybe I'm... I'm a store owner and I want to know where all my customers are.
20:14When they check out, I ask them for my, for their ZIP Code.
20:17Well, in that situation, maybe I just want to, want to geocode by ZIP Code...
20:23...and then of course I need a ZIP Code layer as my reference data.
20:28So depending on what kind of reference data I use, I build different address locators...
20:34...and the first step in my geocoding workflow is then, well, I need to build or obtain the right kind of reference data.
20:47Reference data can come from many different sources.
20:50Maybe the most common source is our software itself.
20:54I don't know if you know that, but the software ArcGIS Desktop comes with a media kit.
21:02It's a set of DVDs, Esri Data & Map DVDs, where on one of these DVDs, you have a street map dataset, StreetMap USA.
21:14It's a dataset of street centerlines of the entire USA, ready-made for geocoding.
21:22And even more, it comes with a ready-made address locator.
21:25You don't even have to worry about the address locator anymore.
21:28You can use it right away for geocoding.
21:31Just a warning. It's massive.
21:32Don't try to copy it to your hard drive.
21:35If you try to copy it, just take a subset of it.
21:38It's very big.
21:41Or another possibility, you might be going to the census bureau Web site and download some TIGER data.
21:48TIGER data, there are street centerlines that you can use for geocoding, as well, and use as reference data.
21:58Well, reference data, that's, we can take them from other sources, but I saw from the survey earlier.
22:06...a lot of you are from city governments, right? County governments.
22:12You might be cleaning your reference data in-house.
22:14Maybe you have field crews going to the field...
22:17...and they, of course, always have the most up-to-date information to put into your reference data.
22:23Maybe you just create those reference data in-house or purchase them.
22:28There's Tele Atlas, there's StreetMap.
22:31A lot of companies, well, that's what they make their money with.
22:34They work, they invest a lot of time and effort to always offer you the, the most up-to-date kind of reference data for geocoding.
22:47Last but not least, I want to mention ArcGIS.com.
22:51You will hear a lot about ArcGIS.com at this User Conference.
22:56It's our new data sharing Web site, and of course, it's a great place to go...
23:00...go for any kind of data including reference data for geocoding.
23:08Might be finding even some geocoding services there that you can use without even doing the geocoding on your own machine.
23:16So check out ArcGIS.com, what used to be ArcGIS Online.
23:20You will be rerouted to this ArcGIS.com Web site.
23:28So no matter what you do, if you obtain reference data or if you built them yourselves...
23:34...there are a couple of things you have to ask yourself when you do that...
23:38...and first and foremost it's, What level of detail do I need in my reference data?
23:46Do I need them at the city level?
23:50Do I need, do I want to geocode addresses within a city?
23:54Maybe I work for the city government and I want to build my address database...
23:59... or maybe I'm a store owner, want to see where my customers are.
24:04But then, well, maybe once, every once in a while, a customer comes from another state or another county.
24:11So do I want to also be able to geocode countrywide or even worldwide?
24:19What's my spatial extent for the geocoding?
24:23And depending on... on that spatial extent, what kind of address attributes do I need in my reference data?
24:31We will see different address locator styles require different types of information in the reference data.
24:39And this is stored as the address attributes.
24:44Speaking of the address locator style here, the next step after we build it, build or obtain our reference data...
24:53...well, we have to decide what kind of reference, what kind of address locator do we want to make?
24:59What kind of style do we use to do our geocoding?
25:06So what's an address locator style?
25:10Well, basically it's a template for making an address locator.
25:15It contains all the parameters and properties to build an address locator in our software.
25:22Let's say you work for a city government, you have the most up-to-date reference data...
25:29...and now you want to use that reference data and make your own address locator.
25:35So definitely, the address information and the reference data determine which style of address locator you will build.
25:46And you see here in the graphic, these are the new address locator styles available in ArcGIS 10...
25:53...and what we have highlighted in blue here is probably the one that you will most commonly use.
26:00It's called US Address Dual Ranges.
26:04The dual ranges stands for house number ranges on both sides of the street.
26:09Remember, you've maybe, maybe you remember from the first map that I've shown you...
26:21...and that's attribute information that we have in the reference data.
26:24That's what you use the Dual Ranges address locator style for.
26:30But then there are others.
26:31There's, for example, one range single house.
26:34 And I'm going to show you a few examples of these address locator styles that we offer here.
26:41So definitely, there's dual ranges.
26:44Dual Ranges is meant for house numbers on both sides of the street...
26:50...and when you look at the corresponding attribute table...
26:52...whenever you see these attribute fields in the attribute table of the reference data like LFADD...
27:00...Left from Address, Right...Left to Address, Right from Address, Right to Address...
27:10...these are house number ranges, the starting and the ending house number for each street feature.
27:18This is when you would use the Dual Ranges address locator style.
27:25Another example here.
27:27Well, maybe you have address points for your reference data.
27:31Maybe your city government has an address point for each and every individual address in your city.
27:38There's another address locator style called Single House, U.S. Address Single House...
27:43...which uses points or polygons as reference data.
27:47So for example, address points.
27:50And you see right here the house number is in a different field and the street name is in a different field.
28:03Now we talk about addresses a lot here.
28:06We talk about street addresses a lot but we don't want to forget that geocoding is not only about addresses.
28:15What if you have a list of place-names?
28:19Like in this example here, you have a list of place-names like Manzanita School, Brickyard Park, you name it.
28:29We have a table of place-names that we want to geocode against some sort of...
28:37...well, not some sort of but against the right reference data.
28:42The address locator style that allows us to do that is a general address locator called gazetteer.
28:50That's also a new one.
28:51And basically, it works with points or with polygons as reference data.
28:59And it's the... it works as a big lookup table, basically.
29:02We've built the lookup table in the reference data and the address locator...
29:06...would match the place-names that we find, that we type in with the right record in the reference data.
29:19So back to our work, geocoding workflow.
29:23We built our reference data, we determined what style do we want to use.
29:28Now it's time to actually build the address locator.
29:33And while building an address locator, it's a very straightforward process.
29:37You can build it either as a file-based address locator and store it in a folder...
29:44... or, well, you can store it in a geodatabase as well.
29:48No matter what storage method you choose, you right-click the folder or the geodatabase...
29:55...point to New, and then there's an entry New Address Locator...
30:00...that you will, that will open a wizard where you can type in all the information.
30:07Now an address locator, it definitely, it defines the process of geocoding, and we call it a tool.
30:14It's the main tool that you use for your, for your geocoding, but if you take a closer look, in fact it is a dataset.
30:23It's a dataset of all the attributes, the indices, queries, that the address locator uses to match the addresses.
30:34But first and foremost, it's also a snapshot of the reference data.
30:44When you build your address locator...
30:47...it looks back to the reference data and takes a snapshot of it so it becomes independent from the reference data later on.
30:55You can share it with other people.
30:57You don't have to worry about the reference data so much anymore.
31:01That's really great.
31:02That's why address locators can sometimes be fairly big.
31:06Well, they contain a snapshot of the, of the reference data.
31:10And I know you might be thinking now, well, what if something changes in the reference data?
31:15Definitely we can update address locators, and maybe Agatha will talk about that later. Okay?
31:23Now building an address locator, here's the process.
31:26First of all, of course, we have to take a look at our address and our reference data...
31:31...to determine what kind of address locator style we want to use and what address locator we want to build.
31:37Then there's a tool that we open just by right-clicking on either the folder or the geodatabase.
31:43That's one way to open them.
31:45We will see later, there are other ways.
31:48We select an address locator style, specify which kind of reference data we want or specify the dataset...
31:56...where is our reference data.
31:59And then optionally, while most of the time it will pick up all the required fields automatically in the reference data...
32:07...and match them to the required field in the address locator...
32:12...but sometimes we have to go in and do a little bit of manual rematching here.
32:17Also, if you work in an ArcSDE type of geodatabase, you might be specifying your configuration keyword...
32:25...and then definitely in the end, we specify where is the address locator stored and how do we call, what's the name of it.
32:34All right, it's time to show you all this.
32:37How do we build our own address locator.
32:40So back to ArcMap, back to San Diego here.
32:48Here we are in ArcGIS 10, and you've probably heard about, many times, you heard about our built-in Catalog window now.
32:57You see, it's one of these dockable windows.
33:00I can autohide it or I can push the pushpin here to dock it.
33:06Now, I'm here in my San Diego geodatabase.
33:11It's my default geodatabase for this map document and this is where I want to build my address locator.
33:18To do that, I just right-click on the San Diego geodatabase, point to New Address Locator...
33:28...and you can see here's the Create Address Locator tool.
33:33The first thing it will ask me, well, what kind of address locator style do you want to use?
33:41So I actually point, I...
33:48...I point to the Dual Ranges address locator here.
33:52This is the most commonly used one because...
33:58...I have actually a street centerline dataset that, with house number ranges on two...
34:04...on both sides of the street that I want to use as my reference data.
34:09I should have showed you that, shown you that earlier.
34:12This is actually the... this... the reference dataset that I'm going to use...
34:18...here, my street layer in my table of contents.
34:23And we have the address information here.
34:28We have house number ranges on both sides.
34:35All right. So my reference data, it's my streets from the table of contents...
34:41...and you see, as soon as I specify the reference data...
34:45...you see it automatically matches the required information with the fields in the reference data.
34:52Again I used some standard names here.
34:56So let's call the output address locator San Diego.
35:05All right. And I don't need a configuration keyword because I work in a file geodatabase...
35:12...so I can just click OK and you see it's processing in the background now.
35:17At the bottom, I see there's a banner going on here that tells me, okay, the tool is running.
35:25And as soon as it finishes, it will give me a visual feedback for my address locator.
35:35It's a little slow this morning.
35:36My computer's still waking up.
35:46All right. So here it is.
35:49So as soon as I built my address locator in ArcMap, you see it's actually added to the list of available address locators...
35:57...here on the Geocoding toolbar.
36:00So I'm ready to use it now.
36:03I could do my geocoding but that will be my next demonstration.
36:07If I would have done this from within the ArcCatalog application...
36:12...I would have needed to manually add this address locator to ArcMap, but since I've built it in ArcMap...
36:19...I don't need to do that. All right?
36:24Let's go back to the slide show.
36:27All right. So, you've seen me creating an address locator in the geodatabase.
36:34You can create it in a folder as a file-based address locator, but no matter what format you choose...
36:44...we would like you to always use ArcCatalog to manage your address locators.
36:50And I'm not saying that because I work for Esri. No.
36:53It really saves you a lot of trouble.
36:56Address locators, especially with file-based address locators, they have many associated files.
37:04And for example, let's say you rename one of the locator files, forget to rename the other associated locator files...
37:12...you can easily corrupt your data.
37:14ArcCatalog is smart enough to know about all these file associations and it will rename them all together...
37:22...copy and paste them all together, so there's less risk of corrupting your data, your file-based address locators.
37:30And, well, if you store them in the geodatabase, you would use ArcCatalog anyway to, to access them.
37:36Address locators, they come with this house icon.
37:42I want everybody to remember this house icon here.
37:46This one, this is how an address locator looks like, okay?
37:53And you can copy and paste them, you can rename them, whatever you'd like to do with them.
37:58And, of course, use them for your geocoding.
38:02Now so far, we've always talked about one single address loca-... building one single address locator to geocode...
38:10...using one single reference dataset, and for most of the cases, that's just fine, that's all we need.
38:18But there are these situations, well, when things fail.
38:23For example, you have a citywide address locator here, you want to see where your customers are.
38:31But every once in a while, you have a customer from out of town.
38:35So in cases like this, you can use or build what we call a composite address locator...
38:43...where we combine multiple, individual address locators into one single address locator and build kind of a fallback scenario.
38:55So the addresses that fail in your city address locator...
38:58...you might want to feed them into your nationwide address locator that uses a different reference dataset.
39:05And maybe as a catch-it-all solution in the end, if everything fails...
39:09...you could have a postal code address locator to at least put the address into the right ZIP Code area.
39:17This is what we call composite address locators.
39:21We geocode against multiple reference datasets and build this kind of cascading, fallback scenario.
39:28This way, we can really catch and geocode quite disjointed address datasets and use different reference data.
39:40Now how do we build such a thing, a composite address locator?
39:43You see, there's another tool for it; it's another geoprocessing tool.
39:48And you see here at the top in the red box, this is where we specify which address locators we want to combine.
39:56So if we zoom in here, you'll see I have in this case combined a city of Atlanta geo-... address locator...
40:07...which I use for my city addresses, with an, with an address locator of postal codes for the entire U.S.
40:14So I built my individual address locators first, and then combine them...
40:19...reference them here in this Built Composite Address Locator tool.
40:27There needs to be some field mapping because the composite address locator requires, again, certain types of information...
40:33...and this...this information may be stored in different fields in the individual address locators.
40:41Again, most of the time, it picks up the fields automatically, and you'll see in this case, it does.
40:47If not, we could go in and, and, and rematch that information.
40:53So in this case, the street information, it's call, it's in a street field in the Atlanta address locator...
40:59...the city, the state, and the ZIP, as well, and also the ZIP information, of course, is in the postal code address locator.
41:10All right. So we've done our field matching.
41:12All that is left to do is give the address locator a meaningful name...
41:17...and then click OK to build your composite address locator.
41:21It will just be another item in your geodatabase or in your folder that you can then use for geocoding.
41:31And last but not least, after we've done all this, we determined what address locator style we need...
41:37...built our address locator, individual or composite one.
41:42Now we're finally ready to do our geocoding and locate our addresses.
41:50Now I've showed you the Geocoding toolbar already in the demo.
41:55Here we have kind of a nice and labeled picture of it.
42:00You see the drop-down menu gives you all the available address locators in this particular map document...
42:08...and if you'd like to add an address locator to this list, you would go to this Manage Address Locator entry here, click it...
42:18...which would take you to that list of default address locators but also you can, you can...
42:25... you can navigate to wherever address locator style, wherever your address locator is saved.
42:35On the right side of the Geocoding toolbar, you see there's the address inspector.
42:39We used that one already.
42:40We can type in addresses here.
42:42We've done that.
42:44Now for batch geocoding there's another button here, Geocode Addresses.
42:49It basically, it's another way.
42:51We can either right-click on a table, do our batch geocoding that way, or click this Geocode Addresses button...
42:58...and then later on, when it comes to going back and rematch some unmatched addresses...
43:04...this is when we use this Review and Rematch button here. Okay?
43:11Now there's one tool, I want to mention that here because it's not on the Geocoding toolbar.
43:18It's a great tool for finding addresses.
43:23In basically interactive geocoding, it's a Find tool on the Tools toolbar, this binocular button...
43:30...and you see we have a Locations tab here in the Find tool, which brings up a panel where we specify an address locator.
43:40We can type in an address and any address that we want to find...
43:45...you see 380 New York Street, that's the address of our headquarter in Redlands...
43:52...and then as soon as we click Find, it gives us a list of possible candidates for this address.
44:00And this is the difference between typing the address into our field on the Geocoding toolbar and using this Find tool.
44:08Well, you get a little more information here.
44:11You get all the possible candidates, you get the score for each of the candidates...
44:17...how well the candidate has been matched to the address, which side of the street it is, and you see some additional information.
44:25You can right-click again, zoom to it, add a point or a callout, all these different things that we can, that we have seen before. Okay?
44:35Save it to My Places, different options here.
44:43All right. So geocoding an address in ArcMap, and I'm talking about batch geocoding here, works in a way that...
44:52...we add the address locator style to ArcMap if we created it outside of ArcMap.
44:58We specify which table we want to geocode.
45:03We go in and specify what output type do we want to save our point data in, as a shapefile or maybe as a geodatabase feature class.
45:15Where do we want to save it.
45:17And then optionally, well, sometimes we go back into the geocoding options and tweak some of the parameters there.
45:26I'm going to show you that in the next demo.
45:29There are some things that we can play with, for example, the spelling sensitivity...
45:33...how picky the address locator is, if there are any typos.
45:38We can add additional fields to the output table, for example, the x,y locations.
45:44These are all options, and we can play with that before we then geocode our addresses and...
45:50...hopefully we don't have to go back and review and rematch too many of the addresses.
45:58Hopefully, most of, hopefully it works fairly well.
46:03All right. So let's go back, do another demonstration here and see how geocoding works.
46:13Now, remember I showed you the Find tool earlier?
46:17That's another thing I want to demonstrate here.
46:20Just make sure that everybody recognizes the Find tool.
46:24It's on the Tools toolbar.
46:26It's this binocular button on the Tools toolbar.
46:31And you see, if I click the Location tab, this is where I can choose an address locator...
46:37...and you see it automatically picks up the address locator that I created earlier, the San Diego address locator...
46:44...but I could use any of the built-in address locators as well.
46:49As long as I have an Internet connection, I can use any of the ArcGIS Online address locators, and they are actually services.
46:58They are actually geocoding services.
47:01Okay. Let's type in an address again.
47:05Triple-1 West Harbor Drive.
47:12Press Enter, and you'll see in this case, we get two candidates.
47:17We get with a score of a hundred, we get the location of our convention center here...
47:24...but apparently there's also a Harbor Drive without the West...
47:28...so that has a slightly lower score, you see, because one of the components is not a perfect match.
47:34Then we can go there, zoom to it, we know the location already, see, it puts it into the right location...
47:41...and we, if we wanted to, we could add another label here.
47:45That's the Find tool. That's the Find tool.
47:48Gives me a bit more information, a little bit more information than the Geocoding toolbar.
47:56It's just the, the Find tool has been there before, ArcGIS 10, it's just historically grown that it's not on the Geocoding toolbar.
48:06It's good for finding any kinds of things, not only addresses.
48:11All right. So let's do our batch geocoding.
48:14And you see for our geocoding, I built the San Diego address locator.
48:19This time I'm going to use the street centerlines layer that I have here in my map document as reference data.
48:29So to start the batch geocoding, I'm going to show you here, I want to show you this Geocode Addresses button.
48:37It's another way to open this wizard environment.
48:42I use the San Diego address locator that I just built, click OK.
48:48And you see again, it... it automatically remembers the last time, the last address table that I've geocoded...
48:59...but I want to geocode a different table now.
49:02Well, we're all here in beautiful San Diego.
49:05We have a week of conferencing in front of us, but maybe next weekend...
49:10...you want to take the family to some tourists' attraction, maybe want to go to the zoo, go to Sea World.
49:17And, well, we're well-prepared, right?
49:21One of our colleagues before has been to San Diego before and gave us an Excel spreadsheet of San Diego tourist places.
49:31That's what I want to geocode now.
49:33I will navigate to my Geocoding folder.
49:41Let's see, there we are.
49:48Here we have our San Diego tourist places Excel spreadsheet that we want to geocode.
49:58So we add that.
50:01And you see the individual spreadsheets in an Excel file, they come up as tables.
50:07And we'll geocode the tourist places here and specify that as an address table.
50:16The output will be called Tourist Places.
50:25And this time I'm going to take a closer look at the geocoding options.
50:29You see here, if I click Geocoding Options, I get different parameters that I can play with.
50:37For example, I could play with the spelling sensitivity.
50:41If I would require that, well, the, all of my addresses must be perfectly spelled right, I could set it to a hundred.
50:48It's set to 80 by default to be a little bit more forgiving.
50:53Sometimes when you go back and rematch unmatched addresses, you could lower the spelling sensitivity...
51:00...but then you run the risk that you get actually mismatched addresses.
51:04Of course, that would impact the quality of your geocoding, so I just, I'm just going to leave it.
51:10Also we have different scores here.
51:12The minimum candidate score, how well a candidate must be matched to an address so that, that it comes up as a possible candidate.
51:21And the minimum match score is something that we use later for rematching.
51:26How well must a candidate match so that we can actually rematch it, maybe if we have two tied candidates.
51:37Down here in the Intersections field, you see, we can specify connectors for street intersections.
51:44So not only can we geocode street addresses, we can also geocode street intersections.
51:50For example, I might want to call, add the forward slash here to this list of default connectors so that I can say, maybe...
51:59...Main Stre-... Main Street/Broadway, Main Street at Broadway, that's my street intersection that I want to geocode.
52:07Offsets, I can set side offsets, end offsets, usually a street address is not right on the street centerline, right?
52:15So we usually have some kind of offset to each side.
52:19And down at the bottom here, this is where you add additional fields...
52:24...additional fields to the output table of your point feature class.
52:29So I recommend that you add, always add the x,y location.
52:33Why? Well, you can, once you have the x,y location on your point data...
52:38...it's really easy to use that point feature class later on for further analysis.
52:44You don't have to go back and manually add the x,y locations.
52:49It's handy to have it.
52:51So, this is a quick and easy way to just get x,y coordinates on your points, so why not check it.
52:58I could also add the percent along the street, but I'm not going to do it now.
53:03All right. So these are our geocoding options, and later on, I don't know...
53:08...Agatha will probably also talk here about the place-name table.
53:13That's another option where you can specify a lookup table for place-names.
53:20But, again, this is, I don't have it set up for that.
53:24I'm just going to click OK.
53:26And you see this time, well, 98 percent of our addresses have been matched.
53:31This is very well, very darn good.
53:34Only two addresses, two addresses, two percent have been, have been unmatched, are unmatched...
53:41...could not be matched, so we will go back later and see what's going on with these addresses and possibly rematch those addresses. Okay?
54:03All right. So we have seen when we do our batch geocoding, this, first of all, we, as the user...
54:11...have the opportunity to add additional fields to our output feature class...
54:17...but also the software, also the software adds additional fields to the original address table that we fed... that we feed in.
54:26Definitely, there's a status field here, M for matched and U for unmatched, that the software adds...
54:34...once the... so that we can easily see later on where are our unmatched candidates.
54:39And there's also a possibility for a T.
54:42T would be tied if there's multiple candidates for the same address with the same score.
54:50Speaking of the score, the match score, that's another attribute that will be added.
54:55The match type, if it's A, automatically matched, or M, manually matched.
55:02And you'll see later, we also have the opportunity to pick the address on, from the map, that would be PP, picked.
55:14All right. And last but not least, I want to talk a little bit about the Match Address field.
55:19The Match Address field will be added to the output table, and the address in the Match Address field...
55:25...it could be possibly be slightly different from the individual, from the original address.
55:33Why is that?
55:35Well, not every match score is a hundred.
55:38It's not always a perfect match.
55:40So it finds the closest address to match to the original address...
55:46...and that's what you see in the Match Address field, the address that has been found.
55:51It's good to have this information so that you can go back later on maybe and compare, how good...
55:57...how well has my address been matched.
56:05Why won't some addresses not match?
56:08That's always the big question.
56:10Well, definitely, the reason could be in the reference data.
56:15Reference data can become out-of-date very easily.
56:18If reference data is not current, maybe the address information is plain just not there, or...
56:25...it could easily be that you have entire address ranges that are missing.
56:31In the address table, in the original address table that you fill in, well, not too surprising, typos happen, right?
56:38Everybody knows that.
56:41Typos are really the most, the number one reason for mismatched addresses or unmatched addresses...
56:48...and sometimes, even people put either wrong or additional information into their address, into their addresses.
56:58I know of an example where, in one city, we had a fairly low income neighborhood.
57:05But then there was some blocks with some very nice houses.
57:10These people, they didn't want to have that particular street in their or in that particular city name in their address.
57:20So they just put a different, different city information there.
57:24So this is, this is the case where you have just incorrect information for one or other, one or the other reason in your addresses.
57:32Or maybe you have too much information, like the house num-, the apartment number and, and a P.O. box.
57:40This could, this could possibly be a problem with your address data...
57:46...although we have, have developed ways to handle these kinds of situations.
57:54All right. So, with unmatched addresses or if an address has two candidates with the same, tied score...
58:03...we have to go back, we have to see what's going on there.
58:06We want to rematch those addresses.
58:11We have different ways to do that.
58:13You see that here in the slide, there's an automatic way where we could go back into the geocoding options...
58:21...and maybe play with the spelling sensitivity or play with the match score.
58:26These are all things that we can automatically, that we can change and then automatically geocode again.
58:34See if that helps with our results.
58:37If we have a lot of unmatched addresses, we might not have a different choice.
58:44But I really recommend, if you have the resources and the time to do it, go in and interactively rematch.
58:54Interactively means manual.
58:56Well, it does take some time to go into the unmatched addresses.
59:00See what's going on.
59:02Find out what's wrong with the address and then fix it and manually rematch again.
59:11Also, and you will see that in the next demo, there is a...
59:14...the possibility to match the address just by picking it interactively with your mouse pointer.
59:21Click the map and pick it, pick the address and match it to the location from the map. Okay?
59:31Here's how the dialog looks like.
59:33I don't want to spend too much time on it because I'm going to show it to you in the demo.
59:37We have the output table, so we can go back and find our unmatched candidates, for example.
59:44The area here on the left, this is where you fix your addresses...
59:49...and at the bottom here, we have the Pick Addresses From Map tool.
59:55That allows us to pick an address from the map and match it to an unmatched candidate.
1:00:02So let's go back, let's go into our next software demonstration.
1:00:16And you remember, you might remember here with our tourist places, we had two unmatched addresses.
1:00:24So I want to go back and re-... review and rematch those addresses. All right.
1:00:31So here we are, here we are in our output table.
1:00:35The first thing I'm going to do, I sort descending based on the Status field so that...
1:00:41...that I get my unmatched addresses right at the top of the table here.
1:00:46And you see if I highlight the first one, if I select it, the address will be displayed here...in this address field.
1:00:58And you'll see there's 3701 N North Harbor Drive.
1:01:06N and North, that's redundant, right?
1:01:10We have either one or the other, so let me delete the N. Okay.
1:01:15So let's see what happens.
1:01:17I deleted the N and I'm going to click Search again.
1:01:22Wow. Not bad.
1:01:24I got another candidate here of a hundred.
1:01:27Once I fix, fixed the address, I got a pretty good match.
1:01:31I'm going to use this candidate and match it to the unmatched address.
1:01:36All I need to do is click the Match button here and you'll see then the Status field changes from U for unmatched to M for matched.
1:01:46Pretty good. All right.
1:01:49So the next candidate here.
1:01:51Let's take a look at the next candidate.
1:01:53Let's take a look at this address here, 201 Fourth Avenue.
1:02:03Can you see anything wrong with this address?
1:02:07Doesn't look like it, right?
1:02:09Looks pretty darned good.
1:02:12Well, that happens actually oftentimes that an address looks okay but for one or the other reason it doesn't match.
1:02:20This is where your work starts, this is where the detective work starts, and you have to find out what's going on there.
1:02:27Now, in this case, I want to show you how to pick an address from a map.
1:02:33If we scroll through the record here, you see this unmatched address actually belongs to a hotel, the Hilton, Hilton Gaslamp.
1:02:42When you walked this morning to the convention center, you might have seen this hotel.
1:02:46It's right across the street from here.
1:02:48And this is maybe a situation that you encounter also with your own data.
1:02:52You have an idea where this address will be, so you can just go to that area in your map...
1:03:00...and interactively match this address and pick it from the map.
1:03:05This is what we use this Pick Address button for here at the bottom.
1:03:10So let me zoom in a little closer here.
1:03:13Let me zoom in to the convention center.
1:03:19And here, there's the address, there's the Hilton Gaslamp Hotel.
1:03:24It's here right between the Hyatt Hotel.
1:03:27Here's where we go to lunch later on.
1:03:30So I will use my Pick Address tool from the dialog here and click the map.
1:03:40You see, it interactively retrieves the closest street address where I click.
1:03:47And if I move along Fourth Street, you see it's actually a 300 house number range instead of a 200.
1:03:55Maybe it should be 304 or 301 instead of 201; 306, I get here.
1:04:04So why not pick this address and you see it automatically matches the address.
1:04:17You actually right-click and pick the address from the map, and then you see the, the Status field updates.
1:04:25[Inaudible audience question]
1:04:28How come it didn't put the address in the Match Address field?
1:04:31[Inaudible audience question]
1:04:33Because it's not a matched address, it's a matched location, okay?
1:04:40All right. So that's rematching. Fixing what's unmatched.
1:04:46So that's often the detective work that happens after you've done your geocoding.
1:04:57Last but not least, I want to spend a few minutes and talk about automating geocoding.
1:05:04Now building an address locator, reminding you of batch geocoding with a table of addresses is one, it's one thing.
1:05:13But, well, if you have thousands or even millions of addresses to geocode...
1:05:18...like maybe each week you get a new set of addresses that you want to process, that can take quite a bit of time.
1:05:26So in our software, we have ways to automate this process.
1:05:32First of all, you see here, we have a picture of ArcCatalog and in the geocoding tools, tool, of our toolbox, I'm sorry.
1:05:42In the Geocoding Tools toolbox, we find all the, a lot of the tools that we have used for our geocoding, right?
1:05:51You see, there's a Create Address Locator, there's a Geocode Addresses, there's a Rematch Addresses tool.
1:05:57All these are geoprocessing tools that, well, we can access in many different ways.
1:06:04We know that, right?
1:06:05We can access them from the tool dialog but we can also use them in a tool called ModelBuilder.
1:06:14ModelBuilder is a way to concatenate, to string tools together and, well, run an entire workflow that we have saved before.
1:06:26It's very straightforward to build our own little geocode, -coding model...
1:06:33...and maybe run it over and over again when we get a new batch of addresses in.
1:06:38So you want to maybe build your model, you build it from within a custom toolbox, you build your own user-defined toolbox.
1:06:47Add your tools to the, to your new model, you can just drag and drop your tools from ArcToolbox into your model canvas...
1:06:56...and also drag and drop your data that you're going to use for geocoding from the Catalog window...
1:07:03...again, same way, into your model canvas.
1:07:06You save your model and you can run it over and over again.
1:07:13Now you might be thinking, ModelBuilder, that's nice, but what if I want to do a little more?
1:07:19What if I, for example, want to run my model automatically every Friday night?
1:07:27Or maybe what if I wanted to build some additional logic into my workflow...
1:07:32...maybe pick a different address locator based on some conditions that I have in my address table.
1:07:38Automatically pick the right address locator from my address data.
1:07:43I can do that with scripting, but...
1:07:45...I don't know about you, but most of us are probably not programmers who know scripting very well.
1:07:53Now, in these cases, in these cases I can take my model...
1:07:59...build it nice and interactively with all my graphical user interface tools, and export it.
1:08:06Export it to a script, for example, to a Python script that would then...
1:08:13...allow me to maybe add in some additional logic or attach it to Windows Scheduler and run it overnight.
1:08:23Windows Scheduler works with any kind of script that you feed into it.
1:08:29So these are all ways how we can, different ways how we can access and use our geocoding tools...
1:08:35...to make us a little more productive with our geocoding and save us the time and patience to wait for it.
1:08:43Also, if you are a programmer, if you are an ArcObjects programmer...
1:08:47...definitely you can access those geocoding tools with ArcObjects as well.
1:08:53All right, so in summary, let's wrap it up.
1:08:58We've talked about what is geocoding, right?
1:09:01It's the process of taking a location, location information, a text information...
1:09:07... a description, a place-name, an address, an x,y coordinate, anything like that and turn it into an address point.
1:09:17We talked about the geocoding components.
1:09:20First and foremost, the address locator is the most important component, the most important tool that we need for geocoding.
1:09:28We also need reference data.
1:09:30We build our, we obtain our reference data, built it, use it to build an address locator, and then do our geocoding.
1:09:39And last but not least, we also saw that geocoding tools, they are nothing else than geoprocessing tools. Okay?
1:09:48May I say, before you all leave, could you please fill out the evaluation forms, as well?
1:09:54We're not done yet with, I still have one more slide to show you, okay?
1:10:01I want to show you some additional resources because this is the intro and you will have questions.
1:10:07There's the resource center Web site at ArcGIS.com...
1:10:11...and also some additional technical support articles you can access from this resource center Web site, especially the Web help.
1:10:20There's an entire geocoding tutorial in the Web help with exercises.
1:10:26You can install the tutorial data, run geocoding at ArcGIS 10.
1:10:32And also we have some additional presentations here at this conference.
1:10:36Agatha will talk about advanced geocoding right after this, and down in the Software Showcase Island...
1:10:42...we have the product engineers, we have people that you can talk to, talk about geocoding.
1:10:49On Wednesday morning at 10:00, our geocoding experts will be there.
1:10:54Actually, will that be you, Agatha, probably right?
1:10:57And my team.
1:10:58Here we are!
1:11:03Thank you so much, thank you so much for attending.
Geocoding – An Introduction
A vast amount of spatial data exists in non-spatial databases in the form of addresses, often in local languages. Geocoding is the process of creating spatial locations from these addresses. This session will introduce the basic geocoding functionality in ArcGIS and help you with a quick-start experience in learning the basic techniques for creating address locators and geocoding with ArcGIS 10.
- Recorded: Jul 1st, 2010
- Runtime: 1:11:07
- Views: 99838
- Published: Aug 25th, 2010
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